Cassava is one of the important rot crops in the Philippines because of its many uses. Aside from being used as food and feed ingredients, cassava is also used in the manufacture of industrial products. It is also used as raw material in the production of ethanol. Moreover, cassava can be processed into different food products with higher economic value. The demand for cassava as raw material for industrial uses dramatically increased. However, this demand is not fully satisfied due to low cassava production.
Cassava or Kamoteng Kahoy is included as one of the country’s major crops under the Agri-Pinoy Corn Program and the Department of Agriculture’s Food Staples Sufficiency Program as an alternative for rice, with the end in view of minimizing rice importation.
Cassava provides the highest yield of food energy and is a staple food for more than 500 million people in the world. Cassava root is very rich in starch and contains significant amounts of calcium, dietary fibre, iron, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin B6 and vitamin C. A recent study conducted in the Philippines showed that significantly decreased cholesterol levels, decreased low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (considered “bad” cholesterol), and may help lower triglyceride levels due to its high total dietary fibre content. Other study shows that cassava also helps support the nervous system and helps alleviate stress, anxiety and bowel syndrome. Cassava also has many benefits as a drug, with varied uses for rheumatism, headaches, fever, wounds, diarrhea, intestinal worms, dysentery, night blindness, and beri-beri.
Cassava is a tropical and sub-tropical plant. It grows in regions with more or less evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year. An ambient temperature that ranges from 25- 30 degree celcius. Cassava thrives at sea level to 845 meters above the sea level. It grows best when planted at the start of the rainy season. Flat or undulating slope (not more than 15%). If the slope of the area is very steep, use water and soil conservation techniques (Example: Sloping Agricultural Land Technology or SALT specifically the establishment of contour hedgerows).
An open field.
Sandy loam to clay loam soil.
Soil pH ranging from 5.5-6.5.
Enough rainfall or water source that can support the growth of cassava plants throughout the year Cassava plants produce low yield and deformed roots when subjected to drought stress especially during the first 3 months after planting.
A well-drained area; no waterlogging for more than 24 hours’ Young cassava plants (1-3 months old) will have stunted growth while mature cassava plants will have rotten roots when waterlogged for more than 24 hours.
Plough and harrow the field twice using a tractor or animal-drawn plough and harrow. Do these operations when there is enough soil moisture. Plough the field at least 6 inches deep.
Preparation of Planting Materials
• Select only physiologically mature, fresh and healthy stems. A stem is healthy if it is free from insects, pests and diseases and its diameter is not less than 1.5 cm. A stem is fresh if the latex or sap comes out within 3 seconds after cutting.
• A stem is mature if the diameter of the pith or cork is not more than half the diameter of the cortex.
• Cut the stems using a sharp bolo.
• If planting is delayed store the stems under a cool and shady place. Storage under such condition is possible up to one month. In storing, make sure that the base of the stem faces the ground.
• Do not let the stems lie on the ground to avoid sprouting of the eyebuds. A cutting with sprouted eyebuds easily dies when exposed to sunlight.
• Cut the stem into stakes 15-30 cm long. A cutting or stake must have at least seven viable nodes.
• Handle the cuttings properly. Do not throw them to avoid damage of the nodes.
Planting of cassava is best done at the start of rainy season and following the planting period in your place. Below are some important points that must be considered in planting cassava.
• Before planting, make ridges 15-20 cm high at a distance of 75100 cm between ridges.
• Plant the seed piece vertically/slanting on ridges. Cuttings can be planted in vertical, slanting or horizontal position. If planted in vertical or slanting position, 2/3 of the length of the cutting (approximately with 3-5 nodes) must be buried in or covered with soil.
• Be sure that the cuttings are in upright position during planting.
• Plant one cutting per hill at a distance of 50-75 cm between hills and 75-100 cm between rows. Monitor dead cuttings 2-3 weeks after planting. Replant dead cuttings immediately.
Cassava can be grown on most soils; however, the best soils are sandy clay loams that are well drained without a fluctuating water table. Proper soil management practices, adequate soil drainage and limestone applications at 2-4 t/ha incorporated into the soil 3 to 4 months before planting are necessary for the successful cultivation of cassava in the following “sugarcane” soils: Washington Series, Waterloo Series, Couva Series, Freeport Series, McBean Series, Cunupia Clay and Princes Town Clay.
These soils are mostly acidic, high in nitrogen with high aluminum levels that stunt plant growth and reduce the formation of tuberous roots.
Cassava thrives best when rainfall is well distributed throughout the growing period and is not erratic. Cassava cultivars such as the M Mex, CIAT Hybrid and CMC40 cannot withstand flooding or prolonged waterlogged conditions. The tubers deteriorate rapidly under these situations and are not marketable.
The cassava crop is highly sensitive to shade leading to low yields and must be grown under full sunlight. However, cassava can be successfully used as a shade plant in young cocoa plantations.
Maximum root production occurs within a temperature range of 25o to 32 o C. Higher temperatures slow photosynthesis and food produced by the leaves are used for vegetative growth and not tuber filling. http://www.agriculture.gov.tt/divisions-and-units/106-root-crop-bulletin-1-guide-to-growing-cassava-successfully.html
Varieties of Cassava:
|S/N||Original Name||Outstanding Characteristics|
|2||TMS-4(2)-1425||High yielding, low cyanide|
|3||TMS-90257||Early bulking, high yielding|
|15||NR-83107||Resistant to pest and diseases|
|16||NR-8082||High yielding and resistant to pest and diseases|
Recommended cassava varieties for different zones of Nigeria
|South-Eastern states include
Abia, Akwa-ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Cross river, Ebonyi, Enugu, Imo, Rivers
|NR 8082, NR 8083, TMS 30572, TMS 30555, TMS 4(2)1425|
|South-western states including
Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo.
|TMS 30572, NR 8082, NR 8083|
|Northern states including
Adamawa, Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Nassarawa, Niger, Plateau, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
|TMS 30572, TMS 4(2)1425, NR 8082, NR 8083|
Cassava is propagated vegetatively using stem cuttings. Planting materials Planting is done by use of cuttings. These are parts of the stem which should be from a mature plant, especially the middle part. They should be 30 – 45 cm long and 21 /2 – 4 mm thick with buds above the leaf scar. Planting method and spacing Cuttings may be buried in a horizontal position 71 /2 – 10 cm deep or buried half way into the soil. In pure stands (without intercropping), a spacing of 1.5 m x 0.9 m is recommended. When intercropped, interplant with a cover crop of beans or groundnuts at a spacing of 50cm x 20cm. This combination gives maximum yields of both cassava and bean or groundnuts. http://www.naads.or.ug/files/downloads/Cassava%20Production%20guide.pdf
Pest and Diseases of Cassava
African cassava mosaic disease
Africa cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) is the most important of all cassava diseases known in Africa. Almost all traditional cultivars of cassava cultivated in different countries on the African continent are susceptible to this disease. Yield losses due to cassava mosaic disease range between 20-95% in susceptible cultivars. On a continent that experiences food insecurity, losses of this magnitude in yield of such an important food crop need cannot be accepted. Most traditional farmers who constitute the majority of food producers in Africa do not control mosaic disease. In Ghana for example, yields of cultivars susceptible to mosaic disease are under 10 t/ha in most farming communities compared to yields of 30 t/ha or more that can be achieved with improved varieties resistant to mosaic disease.
Causal Organism and Symptoms of the Disease
Cassava mosaic disease is caused by a virus. The common visible symptom of the disease is the leaf mosaic. Leaves showing this symptom have patches of normal green colour mixed with different proportions of yellow and white depending on the variety. These chlorotic patches indicate reduced amounts of chlorophyll in the leaves, which affects photosynthesis and therefore yields.
In some susceptible varieties, the leaf blades become distorted and are often reduced in size. Leaf production as a commercial activity can be severely affected when susceptible varieties are depended on. In highly susceptible cultivars, stunted growth is common, especially in plants that experience early infections. These plants often develop poor stems that are not useful as planting materials. Poor root yield is associated with stunted growth.
Transmission of ACMD
Infected plants are the main sources of the virus responsible for the disease. The white fly Bemisia tabacci is the vector in the transmission of the disease from plant to plant through its feeding on cassava leaves. Virus numbers increase in leaves and stems of infected plants. The disease spreads largely through the use of infected stem cuttings as planting materials.
Use of Resistant Varieties
Improved varieties of cassava resistant to mosaic disease are available in production systems of a number of countries. These resistant varieties have been introduced consciously into areas with high disease pressures to improve yields. Significant increases in yield have been achieved through the introduction of improved varieties in some countries including Ghana. Agriculture extension agents must help farmers in their operational areas to access desired disease resistant varieties. Farmers cultivating cassava on a large scale, to feed starch producing factories for example, need varieties that are not just high yielding but also mosaic disease resistant to maintain stable yields.
Observations indicate that some improved varieties of cassava lose their resistance after a number of years of planting in areas with high mosaic disease pressures. Performance of improved varieties introduced to control diseases therefore needs to be monitored continuously to detect loss of resistance and ensure early replacement with new cultivars.
Most of the traditional varieties of cassava cultivated extensively by farmers in Africa are susceptible to mosaic disease. Peasant farmers in most circumstances prefer their local traditional varieties despite being low yielding and susceptible to mosaic disease because of certain unique cooking qualities. It is necessary that yields and disease resistance attributes of these traditional varieties are improved in the interest of traditional cassava farmers who actually produce the bulk of the cassava consumed on the continent.
Use of Healthy Planting Materials
The spread of the disease as mentioned earlier is largely due to the use of infected cuttings as propagating materials. Mosaic disease can be controlled effectively through the use of healthy or virus free planting materials. Farmers must select stems from plants with no mosaic symptoms to produce cuttings. If the source of planting materials is from a branching susceptible variety, spread of the disease can be reduced if cuttings for planting are derived from the branches rather than the main stem. Cuttings from the main stem often sprout with the disease. In non-branching varieties it is preferable to avoid using cuttings from the basal portion of stems as planting material. Cuttings from the basal portions of stems give rise to young diseased plants at sprouting.
Plants that develop from healthy cuttings often grow vigorously to escape early infections and give good leaf and root yields. Programmes of planting material multiplication that supply stems to large numbers of farmers must ensure that disease free stems are distributed to prevent large scale spread of diseases especially into new communities.
The practice of removing the few diseased plants showing symptoms of the disease from a population of healthy ones and destroying them (rouging) reduces spread of diseases particularly on farms. Regular inspection of plants on a farm is necessary if effective disease control is to be achieved. Young plants from sprouted cassava stem cuttings showing mosaic symptoms can be replaced with new healthy ones to maintain high planting densities.
Cassava bacterial blight disease
Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) can be found in all cassava producing countries and in the opinion of the authors is the most devastating of all known diseases of the crop in Africa. In susceptible cultivars, CBB can cause 100% yield loss when environmental conditions optimum for disease outbreaks occur. CBB causes death of leaves and stems and as such severe yield losses are often encountered when outbreaks of the disease occur. Severe outbreaks of CBB in epidemic proportions caused famine in Zaire (now Congo DR) and Nigeria in the early 1970s. In severe outbreaks of the disease shortages in the supply of planting materials may result.
Causes and Symptoms of Diseases
The disease is caused by a bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis). Distinctive symptoms of the disease include the appearance of water soaked spots or lesions on leaves of infected plants. The spots often start along the veins, margins and tips of leaf blades. As the disease develops, neighbouring spots join together to form large brown patches or blights killing the leaf blade as it expands. The leaf dries or wilts and finally falls. In some susceptible cultivars, creamy or yellowish brown gummy exudates are discharged on leaves or stems but often distinctively on leaf petioles of infected plants.
Petioles of blighted leaves are often horizontally orientated to the main stem axis. In advanced stages of the disease, dieback of stems is common (Figure 6). It is common also to find new shoots developing from dead ends of stems of severely infected plants.
Transmission of CBB
The spread of the disease occurs if the bacterial causal organism is transferred from an infected plant to a new susceptible plant. Often the bacterium gains entry into plants through wounds or openings or scratches on leaves and stems. Farm tools particularly cutlasses can easily be used to transmit the disease from farm to farm if tools are not cleaned after work in an infected field. Stems of infected plants are sources of the bacterium that causes the disease. The spread of the disease is largely through the use of cuttings derived from infected stems in starting new farms. It is common to find grasshoppers on plants showing symptoms of CBB compared to healthy plants in the same area. This observation has been made in several disease documentation surveys. Grasshoppers and other insects that feed on cassava may therefore be involved in the transmission of the disease from plant to plant on the same farm or over long distances.
In CBB endemic areas or localities with reported cases of the disease, farmers must consciously search for and plant CBB resistant varieties if economic yields of cassava are to be sustained.
Rouging of Plants
Farmers cultivating susceptible varieties regularly must inspect their plants and remove those showing symptoms of the disease and destroy them through burning. This practice of search and destroy must seriously follow the first few rains coming after the dry season. It is safe to eat storage roots from CBB infected plants. Early detection and destruction of plants showing symptoms of the disease can prevent or slow down the spread of the disease on a farm.
If complete outbreaks on whole farms are observed, it may be necessary to harvest roots immediately and destroy stems and leaves and other plant debris through burning. Infected plant debris may also be ploughed deep into soil. In both situations the land must be allowed to fallow for few years (3 years minimum) before it is planted again to cassava. The bacterium responsible for the disease is unable to survive over a long period outside the host.
In communities where land for peasant farming is scarce, fallowing of land may not be a good disease control option. After destruction of infected plant debris as described in the preceding section, cereals, grains or legumes can be planted on the same piece of land. After three seasons the land can be returned to cassava.
In cases of localized outbreaks of CBB it may be necessary for a localized quarantine measure to be implemented that ensures that planting materials from CBB outbreak zones are not moved into other communities. Farmers must be educated to appreciate the importance of such a measure. Quarantine authorities must monitor movement of planting materials across borders and ensure that uncertified planting materials are quarantined to be sure of their safety. Tissue culture materials from unreliable laboratories or sources must pass quarantine regulations before they are allowed into cropping systems of countries.
Use of Healthy Planting Material
Farmers must consciously harvest stems from healthy plants completely free of any of the described symptoms of the disease. It is generally wise to avoid using planting materials from any farm suspected to be under CBB attack even if symptoms of the disease have not been observed on plants.
Grasshoppers and other insects that can serve as carriers of the bacterium from farm to farm must be controlled using environmentally friendly measures. Controlling grasshopper movement after the early first rains of the wet season can reduce the spread of CBB.
Cassava anthrachnose disease
Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) is widespread in most of the cassava growing regions of Africa. The disease is caused by a fungus (Collectothricum gloeosporioides) that is also capable of causing diseases on other food crops. It is estimated that CAD causes yield losses in the neighbourhood of 30% or more in susceptible cultivars. The disease affects both leaf and stem production. Severe anthracnose attacks can cause death of stems which can affect the availability of planting materials especially in large scale production systems.
The main distinctive symptom of CAD is the appearance of cankers or sore-like lesions on the stem of susceptible varieties. The cankers may be formed at the nodes bearing petioles or along any part of the stem depending on the variety. Depending on varieties or existing environmental factors, cankers may be small or large. Young and older parts of stems may bear cankers. Cankers may develop cracks, exposing inner tissues of stems to the external environment. Cracks when present serve as entry points for other disease causing organisms. Development of cankers may result in distortions in the shape of infected stems.
Wilting is observed in infected plants and this is often accompanied by defoliation. Dieback of stems is an important symptom of the disease and in some varieties entire infected stems may die back and break off. The symptoms of the disease often start and develop rapidly in the wet season.
Transmission of the Disease
Spores of the disease causing fungus are spread by wind or rain splashes and may gain entry through wounds on stems to establish the disease. Feeding holes made by the sap feeding bug Pseudotheraptus devastans may also be the entry holes for the spores of the causal organism.
Planting stem cuttings bearing cankers of the disease is one of the means of spreading the disease into new areas. Shoots that develop from cuttings bearing cankers develop symptoms of the disease early and are likely to suffer higher yield losses.
The most reliable control measure is to use desired anthracnose resistant varieties particularly in localities with high CAD pressures. Cultivation of disease resistant or tolerant varieties is even more important in large scale production systems that require stable high yields to feed industries that depend mainly on cassava as raw material.
Healthy Planting Material
In situations where desired varieties are susceptible to CAD, healthy stems free of cankers and dieback tissues must be selected to provide cuttings for new plantings.
Healthy cuttings sprout well and give rise to young vigorous growing plants that are likely to escape early infections. Where canker bearing stems are the only available sources of planting materials, stem cuttings must be dipped in appropriate fungicides recommended by extension agents in their operational areas. Spores and other fungal materials of disease causing fungi can be destroyed by a few minutes of dipping in suitable fungicides.
Stems and leaves from infected plants after harvest must be destroyed by burning to reduce the amount of fungal spores and other infective structures that can cause infections in the next generation of plants.
Host Range of Causal Organism
The fungus that causes cassava anthracnose can also cause diseases on other food crops such as pepper, avocado, banana, pawpaw and yam. Spores therefore can be transferred from these plants to cause infections in cassava. Plant debris from plants suspected to be harbouring the anthracnose causing fungus must be destroyed by burning, particularly during land preparation before cassava is planted.
Cassava bud necrosis
Bud necrosis is a fungal disease usually found in cassava growing areas with humid environments. Incidence of the disease is therefore higher in the humid forest zones compared to the drier savanna areas. Observations indicate that poor farm sanitation (weedy fields) in high relative humidity zones promotes high incidence and severity of the disease.
The main symptom of the disease is the appearance of dark or grey patches or necrotic lesions on stem surfaces of susceptible cultivars. The necrotic areas are made up of fungal tissue of the causal organism. Necrotic areas often cover buds on the stem giving the disease its name.
The disease spreads through spores that are carried by wind from plant to plant or from farm to farm. Bud necrosis of cassava, however, largely spreads through the use of infected stem cuttings bearing necrotic lesions in planting.
Healthy Planting Materials
In farming communities where the desired varieties grown are susceptible to the disease, farmers must use cuttings derived from healthy stems completely free from necrotic lesions. Stem cuttings with infected buds often fail to sprout when planted, resulting in poor plant establishment on farms. In large scale commercial production farms, refilling or replacement of cuttings that fail to sprout increases production cost to farmers.
Good Farm Practices
Incidence and severity of bud necrosis is significantly reduced on farms when good planting distances that allow free movement of air around plants are maintained. The disease is better controlled when weeds are also well managed. These good practices contribute effectively to disease control when healthy planting materials are always used to start farms. Plant debris, especially stem pieces bearing necrotic lesions. must be destroyed by burning immediately after harvest to reduce sources of infective fungal spores.
The fungus that causes bud necrosis can also live on other crops such yam, banana and mango. Debris from these plants suspected to be harboring disease causing organisms must be destroyed by burning, particularly during land preparation.
Brown and white leaf spot diseases
Brown and white leaf spots are relatively minor diseases of cassava caused by fungi. White leaf spot is less frequently seen in most cassava growing areas in Ghana compared to brown spots. In Ghana, symptoms of brown spots are seen by some farmers as signs of crop maturity.
The key symptom of brown leaf spot disease is the appearance of few to several brown spots on the upper surface of leaves of susceptible varieties. Margins of brown spots are irregular. The middle of brown spots may break given rise to ‘shot holes’. White leaf spot disease is characterized by the presence of white spots on the upper surface of leaves of infected plants.
As mentioned earlier, several farmers regard symptoms of brown leaf spot disease as signs of crop maturity because the spots according to these farmers show up when plants are fully grown. Very little or nothing is therefore done to control the disease. Observations indicate, however, that in some susceptible cultivars brown spots appear early after planting. In such varieties large areas of the surface of leaves may be covered by brown spots reducing the total surface area available for photosynthesis. Yields will be reduced in situations of this nature. Efforts must therefore be made to control leaf spot diseases.
Infected leaves that drop from plants are sources of spores of leaf spot causing fungi. From infected leaves spores are carried by wind or rain splashes to cause new infections. Weeds can also serve as sources from which leaf spot fungi may spread. Good weed control practices can, therefore, reduce the spread of leaf spot diseases.
Root Rot Diseases
Root rot diseases are very important because rotten storage roots of cassava are unwholesome for consumption. Severe outbreaks of root rot diseases on a large scale may result in food shortages or even threaten food security in communities that depend very much on cassava as a major staple food. Root rot diseases may lead to death of entire plants – a situation that can affect the availability of planting materials and leafy vegetables. Root rot diseases can also affect the supply of storage roots to large scale processing factories that depend on cassava as the only raw material.
Causes and Symptoms of Root Rot Diseases
Peasant farmers that cultivate cassava are often quick in attributing root rots to waterlogging and periodic flooding of land planted to cassava.
It is true that waterlogged soils are not good for cassava production because they promote rots. There are however other causes of cassava root rot that may be due to pathogenic microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) and some parasitic mushrooms. In most parts of Ghana root rot diseases are caused by microorganisms. In the last fifteen years, however, a parasitic mushroom (Polyporus sulphureus), originally suspected to be pathogenic on woody plants, has been found attacking cassava plants and causing severe root rots in Ghana. This parasitic mushroom is capable of causing 100% yield loss on farms where susceptible cultivars are planted.
Another parasitic fungus that produces small whitish fruiting bodies at the distal end of attacked cassava plants was discovered in Ashanti region of Ghana in the last three years. The fruiting bodies of this parasitic fungus appear late in disease development and storage roots of attacked plants may be completely rotten by the time the whitish fruiting bodies become visible on stems. The bases of attacked stems become weak, and lodging is very common in fields attacked by this parasitic fungus. An interesting feature of this rot disease is that certain flies use the rotten roots as breeding grounds for their larvae. A characteristic foul smell is associated with this root rot disease. Yield losses as high as 45% have been recorded in fields of susceptible cultivars.
Certain rot causing organisms actively attack storage roots when they overstay in the soil or when harvesting is delayed. A number of fungal species including Botryodiplodia theobromae cause rots of this kind in several soil types. An example of this rot is shown in Figure 19 where the roots on display were harvested 24 months after planting.
General symptoms of root rot diseases include wilting of leaves, which in most cases is accompanied by defoliation. Other symptoms include swollen roots with colored inner tissues. Rotten roots may be soft and produce an offensive odour (this is often associated with rots caused by bacteria). Shoot or stem dieback is a feature of plants with underground rotten roots. Root rot diseases may lead finally to death of infected plants.
Methods of Spread of Root Rot Diseases
Root rot diseases caused by some microorganisms require water to spread. Reproductive or infective units of certain rot causing fungi have to swim to reach a new host to initiate a new attack. Plant debris, especially rotten roots, left on fields after harvest are sources of spores or other infective structures that can cause new infections. Root rot diseases can spread through the use of farm tools such as cutlasses and hoes contaminated with spores of fungal organisms or bacteria cells.
Control of Root Rot Diseases
Site and Land Selection
One important characteristic of land suitable for cassava cultivation is that it should not be subject to flooding. Waterlogged soils also promote root rot diseases and must be avoided at all times. Farming close to rivers and streams must be avoided as these areas are likely to be flooded at some time in the year. A sandy loamy soil that is well drained is a good soil type for cassava. It is advisable not to cultivate cassava on land that has a history of root rots and other major diseases. Any land showing the presence of any of the root rot causing mushrooms described above should not be planted to cassava. If the only land available for cassava cultivation has a history of root rots, then good disease management practices must be maintained if good yields are expected.
Land suitable for cassava production must be fertile enough to give a healthy crop of plants. Healthy plants are not easily attacked by diseases. Fertility of poor soils can be improved through the addition of organic fertilizers such as poultry manure if inorganic fertilizers prove too expensive.
Disease Resistant or Tolerant Varieties
Farmers are always advised to plant disease resistant or tolerant varieties if they are available. In localities with a long history of root rot diseases, farmers must consult their Agricultural Extension agents for advice on the best varieties to cultivate to minimize losses in yields. Results of work in Polyporus endemic areas in Ghana indicate that some varieties tested give yields two times higher than the susceptible local cultivars.
Cassava stems from fields with visible signs of root rot diseases must not be used as planting materials, even if they look healthy. Stems from such fields are likely to carry spores of root rot fungi. Localized or national quarantine measures to check movement of planting materials from root rot endemic areas into new localities may be necessary to check the spread of root rot diseases.
Good Farm Sanitation
Destruction of plant debris including rotten roots and stems bearing fruiting bodies immediately after harvest is a good measure that destroys spores of pathogenic fungi. The leathery fruiting body after harvest can persist for over a year and is a good source of spores for new attacks in the subsequent season’s crops. Disease severity on farms can be reduced through destruction of debris that carry spores into the next planting season.
Fruiting bodies of parasitic mushrooms such as Polyporus sulphureus start their development on cassava plants after the first few rains following the dry season. Regular harvesting and destruction of young fruiting bodies shortly after they appear and destroying them through burning reduces severity of rots on farms. Harvesting and destroying the fruiting bodies soon after they appear prevent them from producing spores required for the spread of the disease.
Some root rot causing organisms actively invade and degrade storage roots when they are well developed and harvesting is delayed. Early harvesting therefore prevents or reduces incidence of rots in some varieties of cassava.
Most root rot causing pathogens are soil borne and therefore continuous cultivation of susceptible varieties on the same piece of land may lead to a build-up of pathogen populations on a farm. Incidence and severity of diseases on the same field therefore increases year after year. Rotating cassava with cereals or grains every three years can help reduce the effects of root rot diseases on a farm. It is advisable not to plant cassava continuously for three years or more on the same piece of land especially in localities with high disease pressures. The absence of host plants from a field for a reasonable period of time deprives pathogens of their nutrient supply and this often leads into a decline in pathogen populations.
Fallowing of land after five or more years of continuous cassava cultivation for a period of three to five years is a good measure that can reduce incidence and severity of cassava diseases. When practised properly, fallowing can help eliminate a disease completely from a locality or reduce its incidence significantly. In localities where pressure on available land is high, crop rotation may be the better of the two options.
Clean Farm Tools
Farm tools such as cutlasses, hoes and ploughs used on fields with a root rot history must be cleaned immediately after use before being used on a second farm. This reduces the spread of diseases from farm to farm.
Avoid Planting Cassava as the First Crop after Clearing Woodlands or Forests
Certain parasitic mushrooms can grow on woody trees or cassava depending on which one is available or preferred. It is therefore not advisable to cultivate cassava as the first crop just after clearing forests or woodlands. In the absence of woody trees, introduced cassava plants will be attacked. Woody stumps left on farms after clearing woodlands may serve as secondary hosts or reservoirs to fungal pathogens that attack cassava. It is therefore a good practice to remove stumps from cleared fields.
Pathogenic organisms causing root rot diseases of cassava, particularly fungi, may have more than one host. This implies that a single pathogen can cause diseases in more than one species of plant. Some root rot fungi of cassava can attack soybean and sunflower. The Polyporus root rot mushroom can attack a number of crops including yam and citrus. Care should therefore be taken in the selection of crops for rotation or intercropping with cassava.
CASSAVA STEM STORAGE
Reasons for Storage of Cassava Stem
Cassava stem is the major source of planting materials to produce cassava roots. Therefore, storage of the stems provides an avenue for the preservation and distribution of high yielding cassava cultivars among farmers. Efficient method of cassava stem storage protects the stem from pests and weather problems that pre-dispose the stems to dehydration leading to loss of viability and reducing the availability of planting materials. It Provides a sure way of fund generation from sale of scarce cassava stems during planting season.
Sources of Cassava Stem for Planting
Individual farmers cansource for planting materials from his farm. Cassava stems could also be from the farms of friends. Hence, Cassava stems are being sold in the following locations
• Agricultural Development Projects (ADP)
• Root and Tuber Expansion Project sites (RTEP)
• Ministries ofAgriculture (States, SE, SW, SS, Central)
• Research Institutes e.g National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI), International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) and Agricultural Universities in Nigeria
Preservation of Cassava Stem
Construction of Cassava Stem Shed
The shed is to provide cool environment, increase humidity and enough ventilation for the cassava stems being stored. The shed can be constructed of all farm materials. The width of the shed should be 5 metres while the length can be as long as desired. The roof is made of the thatch material with the sides of the shed covered to half of the height by thatch materials also. The remaining half is uncovered.
The floor of the shed is excavated and the top soil removed. The soil is replaced with porous soil made from river bed sand. The inside of the shed is demarcated with wooden planks on which the cassava stem bunch can rest.
Preparation of Stems for Preservation
• Select cassava stems from farm or from rapid multiplication plots.
• Cut stems into 1 metre length and bundle about 50 stems together.
• Prepare chemical mixture as follows:
• 100ml ofActellic mixed in 20 litres of potable water, 10kg of Neem tree ash mixed with 20 litres of water well stirred and allowed to settle and filter 24 hours later. Mix the filtrate with the actellic mixture.
• Dip the cassava bundles into the chemical mixture for about 5 minutes.
• Remove from chemical and allow the bundles to drain and air-dry before packaging in perforated polythene bags.
• Packaging in perforated polythene bags will be necessary if the stems are to be preserved in the Central and Northern zones of Nigeria. The packaging will not be necessary if preservation is done in the South West and South East zones.
• Stand each bundle making sure the rare ends of the stems touch the shallow porous soil in the cassava stem shed.
• Wet the soil twice weekly and reduce irrigation to once weekly when sprouting is noticed.
• Desprout as necessary.
• Use stems as soon as rain is steady for planting.
Methods of Producing Cassava Stems for Storage
Cassava Stems from harvested farms
Healthy stems from harvested farms serve as a ready and cheap source of cassava stem for storage. It is customary for farmers to harvest roots and later use the stems as planting materials. The vigour of such stem is not very high because of dehydration after harvest. Best performance is achieved if the stems are planted immediately after harvest. The following methods have been used by farmers to preserve cassava cuttings from their farms.
Storage Under Trees:
Farmers bundle cassava stems together (50-60 stems/bundle) and stand them under shades of trees making sure that the stem ends touch theground. About 40% of the bundles can still be viable for cultivation. This practice is common with cassava farmers in the South West and part of Central zones of Nigeria.
Stem storage near streams: Cassava stems are cut and stored near steams and covered with grass. This method is practiced in the South South, South East and part of central zones of Nigeria. About 45% of viable stems can be obtained through this local method. Apart from dehydration the major drawback in the use of the two traditional methods is theft of stems. This has discouraged many farmers in storing cassava stems.
Packaging Stems for Distribution
After storage the cassava stems could be distributed in two types of packages.
Distribution to farmers
The stems are further processed by cutting into stakes with four nodes.
• Dip the stakes in solution of actellic and neem ash filtrate as described earlier.
• Air dry and package in perforated polythene bags tied in such a way as to provide some air-space at the top.
• About 100 stakes can be packaged in such container for distribution to farmers
Packaging in bundles
Bundles of cassava stems stored can be packaged in perforated polythene bags. Each bundle of 50 stems should be completely wrapped with the polythene materials tied to entrap some air space at the top. However, method one is more convenient than method two for distributing cassava. http://www.nspri-ng.org/Publications/Cassavastem.pdf
|F.O.NWAMBUONWO AND SONS(FONS)LIMITED – Nigeria||Musa Ali Otigba ) :#4, langtang street, jos||Exporters of Honey, Garlic, Pepper, Coconut, Cassava Chips, Soya Beans etc.|
|ACUITY GLOBAL RESOUCES ENTERPRICES – Nigeria||( Muhammad A Musa ) :No.1, Gamji Gate () Money Dobbs Premises), KabalanDoki, Kaduna, Kaduna State||Exporters of Dried Ginger, Garlic, Cashew Nuts, Groundnut Cake, Soybeans, Soybeans Cake, Palm Kernel Oil, Palm Kernel Cake, Dried Red Pepper, Gum Arabic, Cassava Pellets, Cassava Leaves, Kaolin, Barytes Bentonite, Gemstones, Coal Etc.|
|Rasfa agencies nig. ltd||42 akogunstreet,olodi-apapa, 23418503018
Web Page Address = http://www.rasfa.com/
|We produce cassava chips for exports to Europe, America, and Asia. We have grown in production capacity therefore, we need interested buyers all around the globe.|
|Segeo Nigeria Limited||20 Dffri Road Church Bus Stop AbaranjeIkotun, Phone = 2348028419674
FAX = 2340182393
Person to Contact = Geeorge Stephen
Email = firstname.lastname@example.org
|we are agro manufacturers for the world, cassava starch powder garlic fresh powder and ginger powder &slip. and other products like Soya bean oil, Soya cake grade 46%wheat.we deal agent, wholesale and direct buyers with good and quality services.|
|AKEM ENTERPRISES – Nigeria||Address :#17 akpaube lane, uyo. Contact: Inieduanietie||Exporters of Honey, Garlic, Gall Stones, Ginger, Cassava, Mobile Phones and Mobile Phone Accessories.|
|Cassava marketers Association of Nigeria
|2 Export House 213
Kumba Street Wuse Zone 2
|This association in Nigeria is capable of supplying all African food items from Africa at competitive prices. They also carry Nigeria Home CDs, and both new and old films. They can supply African cosmetics, cassava leaves, and any other agricultural products.
|Shop 06 Ayoola Shopping Plaza, AseroAbeokua
Ogun State Nigeria
|The farm is located at IjeunAkoni Village, Via Osiele in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Fayolam Farms is a registered farm with the Nigera Corporate Affairs Commission Abuja in 2009. Main activities are cultivation of crops that include cassava, maize, watermelon, and yam. They process cassava into very fine garri known as garriijebu or garriwenkun or olowonyo. Processing is based on Standard Organisation of Nigeria standard. Farms Mission: To be a foremost exporter of garri product to European and American countries.
|Chukstracy Import and Export CC
|No. 31 Pretoria Street Hillbrow
J.H.B South Africa
Phone: +27,11,4845118 Mobil: +27,731260532, +27,732195263
|We import West African foods into South Africa. Our imports include gari, fresh yams, palm oil, egusi, ogbolo, achi, and more.
|Grace Bee Ventures Ltd
|6 AlhajiBashiru Street, Ojodu
P.O. Box 9483, Ikeja. Lagos
|Specializing in production, processing and packaging of hygienically-processed African foods, including gaari, raw plantain, raw yam tubers and many different types of flour.
|Importers Co-operative, Ltd
Surulere 33, Ogunmefun Street, Pedro, Gbagada
|Worldwide wholesale suppliers for African foods. Items include soup ingredients such as achi, bitter leaf, crayfish, egusi, ogbono, ukazi, smoked shrimp, palm oil, African spices and seasonings. They also carry stock fish, garri, yams and yam flour, nuts (kola, bitter kola, coco nuts, etc), beverages such as Milo and Bournvita, African video films, African weekly and monthly news magazines, newspapers, and native clothing.|
Globally, only 15 per cent of total production of cassava is exported with Thailand being the major exporter of cassava products. As earlier stated cassava and its derivatives were de-listed from the export prohibition lists since 1996 and any Nigerian can invest and export any processed product(s). Its export is now encouraged among other food crops for which Nigeria is a major producer by present administration.
Direction of export
The direction of cassava export is mainly Europe and North America with European Union accounting for about 90 per cent of the total buyers. Details of the foreign buyers of industrial starch, cassava chips & pellets and cassava flour would be given to prospective investors on contacting the writer. About 30 per cent of cassava production globally is used for starches and other industrial products and only less than one per cent is processed into ethanol particularly in Brazil.
Europe Market Overview
The Europe is the major importer of cassava for animal production. Details would be given to prospective investors. Animal production being the main attraction of Agriculture in Europe, accounted for about 70 per cent of total agricultural output. The compound feed formulation is the main attraction for cassava. About 90 per cent of the traded cassava in the Europe is from the developing countries, Such as Nigeria. Main suppliers are Thailand (about 85 per cent), Indonesia (about six per cent), sub Saharan Africa is yet to contribute significantly to world trade in cassava with about three (3) per cent recorded in the early part of the millennium.
The principal buyer of cassava in the Europe is Netherlands, (accounting for over 40 per cent of total Europe imports); Germany (about 20 per cent), Belgium and Luxembourg (about 13 per cent), France (eight per cent), U.K (10 per cent) and Italy (two per cent). Details breakdown would be given to prospective investors the exportable quality standard.
Transportation and handling
Transportation and handling constitute high levels of cost of inputs in preparation of cassava for export. This is due to the bulky nature of the product. This cost could be as high as 50 per cent of total cost.Proper management of cost reduction programme is therefore recommended for those who wish to venture into the export of cassava as reduction of costs will afford better competitiveness. Cassava pellets are usual cheaper to transport and handle than other exportable processed cassava products like industrial starch. The standard of the product is very important.
Feed millers are very critical about quality. Consistency of quality is very important for them to maintain the standards of their products.Quality is usually in terms of nutritive value. Minimum standard specifications are as follows 70 per cent, 70 per cent and 62 per cent stand for chips, flour and pellets respectively while moisture content is 14 per cent, fibre five per cent and ash-three per cent content for all the three products. Details would be given to prospective investors on contacting the writer.
Packing is done in sacks of cotton, multi-craft paper bags or clean jute bag; pellets should be uniform in shape and size, less fragile and should be compatible for handling, storage and transportation. Palletising equipment exist for production of pellets. Prospective investors should not afraid of the quality control because the writer through years of experience can guide any investor to success.
The current price of Thailand hard pellets (Nigeria’s equivalent) is as high as 3,500 DM per ton, industrial starch $2,500 US per ton as at January 2011(please note that the international price fluctuates and project plan market price) would be worked out based on the current.
The major constraint of cassava is that the roots deteriorate rapidly. Cassava roots have a shelf-life of 24–48 hours after harvest. Fresh roots must be processed within 2 to 3 days from harvest. This transformation requires equipment for peeling, grating, boiling, fermenting, drying, frying, and milling.
A wide range of cassava processing techniques exists along with relevant equipment for processing the roots into various cassava products in Nigeria and elsewhere. The quality, standards, and specialization of equipment differ by cassava product, fabricator, and country. Equipment may be designed to produce multiple products, while other are designed for specific cassava products.
The equipment presented in this document can be used for small and medium-level cassava enterprises.
NCAM Cassava Lifter
Cassava Washing Machine
GRATERS AND CHIPPERS
NUI-LUKAS Electrical Grater
IITA Portable Grater
IITA Mini Grater
IITA MK1 Powered Grater
IITA MK2 Powered Grater
IITA MK3 Powered Grater
IITA MK4 Powered Grater
OCTEC Cassava Rasping Machine
PRODA Self-action Grater
EDOZIE Double-roller Grater
D.AGEH Chipping Machine
Indian Cassava Chipping Machine
IITA Power Chipper
NCAM Cassava Chipper
NOVA Cassava Chipper
HANIGHA Cassava Chipper
B&T Ventures Cassava Chipper
S.ADISS Cassava Chipper
ARCEDEM Manual Chipper NCAM Manual Chipper