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Ginger Production

Description

Nigeria is the third largest exporter of ginger in the world after China and India. In the Nigerian market ginger is well known and on high demand even though it is quite expensive.

Most of the dried ginger that are available for international trade are simply sun dried over a few days, but artificial drying is also used in areas lacking a defined dry season to coincide with the harvest.

The rhizome is dried to between 10 and 12 per cent moisture content. Dried ginger is usually presented in a split or sliced form. Splitting is said to be preferred to slicing, as slicing loses more flavour, but the sliced are easier to grind and this is the predominant form of dried ginger currently in the market.

In Nigeria, harvesting of ginger starts from October and normally continues until April/May. This largely depends on the market situation as ginger can be left on the ground (not harvested) for two years.

Ginger is produced in six states of the Federation namely, Kaduna, Nasarawa, Benue, Niger and Gombe with Kaduna as the major producer. Nigeria’s production in 2005 was estimated at 110,000 metric tonnes (FAO). In the market, ginger is available in various forms; fresh ginger rhizome, powder ginger and dry ginger rhizome. Out of this, 10% is locally consumed as fresh ginger while 90% is dried primarily for the export markets.

Ginger can be processed into a wide variety of products. Many products can be manufactured from ginger like dehydrated ginger, ginger candy, ginger powder, ginger oil and oleoresins and so on. Ginger is an important commercial crop with versatile applications. As condiment, ginger is used for flavouring many food products like tomato sauce or ketchup, salad dressings, meat sausages, gravies, pickles, curry dishes and so on.

It is also used in many medicines as it helps digestion and absorption of food and has antiseptic properties. Ginger based products have wide range of applications in many industries like food processing, pharmaceutical, soft drinks, meat canning, confectionary, tobacco processing, soap making and so on. The demand for the processed products is increasing day by day due to its convenience to handle and use. There are good export prospects as well. https://www.foramfera.com/marketresearchreports/agriculture-agro-processing-forestry-and-fishing/ginger-powder-production-packaging-and-sales-local-export-in-nigeriathe-feasibility-report/

 

Land Preparation

Plough the field twice then harrow to pulverize the soil. Make furrows 1 m apart. Incorporate fully decomposed chicken manure at 3-5 t/ha. http://businessdiary.com.ph/2955/ginger-production-guide/#ixzz4vI8s0EQO

 

Climatic and Soil Requirements

pH and Sanitation

Ginger plants require mildly acidic soils for healthy growth and rhizome production. Ensure that your soil pH is between 5.5 and 6.5. If the soil pH is too high, it is too alkaline; if it is too low, it is too acidic, and will interfere with ginger growth. Lower the soil pH by applying composted manure, or increase the pH with calcium carbonate or dolomite to achieve optimal pH. Good clean soil is also important for healthy ginger. Make sure that the soil is sanitary and free from pests, or fungal pathogens and parasites, such as root knot nematodes.

 

Soil quality

Ginger prefers rich, fertile soil. Soil rich in organic matter provides ginger with the nutrients it needs to produce flavourful, healthy rhizomes, without the need for additional fertilizers and amendments. If your soil is lacking in organic matter, or if you are using a store-bought potting mix, stick to a regular fertilization schedule for your ginger plant. Some ginger plants suffer tip rot, in which the tip of the rhizome begins to decay. This indicates a lack of calcium in the soil; therefore, a calcium amendment may be necessary. When adding fertilizers and supplements in areas of high rainfall, remember that rainwater pulls and leaches applications from the soil; therefore, try not to fertilize ginger plants directly before a rainstorm.

 

Conditions

Moist, well-draining soil is optimal for ginger plants. It is important that the soil mixture hold moisture; however, it is important that ginger plants not be exposed to overly saturated or waterlogged soil. The best soils for draining and moisture retention include sandy or loamy mixtures. Create a soil mixture using one part sand and one part compost for optimal drainage, as well as the proper amount of organic matter for fertilization. Because ginger develops beneath the soil, adequate soil coverage is also required to protect the rhizome from the elements above ground. Guard against soil erosion, due to wind and rainfall, by providing a sheltered area for your ginger plant to grow. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/kind-soil-ginger-like-42476.html

 

Variety

Ginger has several varieties grown in different growing areas and are generally named according to their localities where they are grown. Some of the varieties are grouped into the following:

  • High dry ginger which includes Maran, Nadia, Karakkal, Manantoddy, Valluvanad.
  • Green ginger which includes Rio-de-janeiro, Wynad local, China, Tafengiya and Varadha.
  • High volatile oil which includes Sleeve Local, Himachal, Narasapatlam, etc.
  • High oleoresin; which includes Ernad, Chernad, China, Rio-de-janeiro, etc.
  • Low fiber content; which includes Jamaica, Bangkok and China.

http://agriculturenigeria.com/farming-production/horticulture/ginger

 

Planting

Planting Materials

About 800 to 1,500 kg seed pieces are required per hectare. Store ginger roots under shade and cover with banana or coconut leaves. Select healthy rhizomes with sprouts or eyes just before planting. Cut into pieces with 3-4 sprouts each.

The seed pieces may also be pre-germinated for uniform growth. Prepare raised beds of any desired length measuring 1 m wide and 20 cm high. Line sow the seed pieces 2 cm apart and cover with a mixture of compost and coir dust. Water as needed. Transplant when the sprouts are about 1-2 cm long. New varieties can also be propagated by micro propagation or tissue culture to increase the rate of multiplication.

 

 

Propagation
Ginger is vegetatively propagated from small sections of the rhizome, called sets. Sets are produced by cutting a small 3–6 cm from a living rhizome. Each piece should possess at least one living bud which will produce shoots. The ginger sets can be pre-sprouted in pots or nursery seed beds by covering with a layer of soil or they can be planted directly at the final planting location. The bed should be prepared for planting by digging to soil to a fine tilt and removing any weeds that are present. The addition of lime to the soil adjusts the pH while helping to provide the calcium required by the plants during their growth. Lime should be added to the soil in appropriate amounts in the Fall prior to planting. The sets should then be planted in early Spring at a depth of 5–12 cm, leaving 15–35 cm between plants and 25–30 cm between rows. For optimal growth, the soil temperature at planting should not fall below 25°C (77°F).

Management Practices

Ginger has a tendency to grow horizontally and the soil can be hilled around the growing stems to force a more vertical growth habit. Soil should be hilled 3 to 5 times during the growing season. Any exposed rhizomes should be covered with soil and weeds should be removed from the bed. Ginger will benefit from the addition of a complete fertilizer as well as phosphorous, calcium and organic matter prior to planting. During the growing season, additional fertilizer can be applied as a side dressing. The side dressing should be made 25 to 30 cm (10-12 in) from the row of plants due to ginger being easily damaged by fertilizer applications. Side dressings should be made every 2 to 3 weeks during the growing season to ensure the ginger is supplied with adequate nutrients. https://plantvillage.org/topics/ginger/infos

 

Irrigation

Carefully monitor irrigation to prevent sunburn of newly developed shoots and water stress in the crop. Any wilting will reduce the final yield. You will need a low output solid set sprinkler system with an output of 3-4 mm/hour. Sunburn is likely to occur with young shoots when shade temperatures reach 32 °C. These conditions are most likely to occur between 10 am and 3 pm.

Commence irrigation when the temperature reaches 31 °C and wet the top 2 cm of soil. Check moisture daily, particularly on still days or when NE winds are blowing. Where possible, align irrigation NE/SW. Even with an automatic system you should still do regular daily checks.

Ginger requires high quality water for irrigation. Supplies with an electrical conductivity greater than 0.65 dS/m require careful management so you should seek advice. If the water supply is suspect, we suggest monthly testing. Table 1 shows an example of a typical irrigation schedule.

 

Table 1. Irrigation plan
Month Irrigation scheduling – amount and comments
July Fallow or cover crop.
August to mid October After planting irrigate to maintain soil moisture until emergence. Avoid overwatering before emergence as rots develop easily.
Mid October to late November During shoot emergence, use irrigation to cool the tender shoots and prevent sunburn (as well as for plant growth). Apply small amounts of water, such as 2 mm/hour during sunny periods. Once shoots have unfurled and significant leaf cover has been established, maintain soil moisture for growth by applying 5 mm every 10 days. During very hot, sunny weather, keep surface 2 cm of soil moist to cool the plants and prevent sunburn.
December to mid-to-late January For normal plant growth and evaporation, apply 5 mm every 2-3 days over a 6 week period. The amount and frequency will vary widely with soil type and weather conditions.
Late January to end of February Heavier applications are required for plant growth and evaporation. Apply 10-12 mm every 2-3 days (amount and frequency will vary as above). Avoid plant water stress.
March to June Apply as required for the late harvest crop (mainly to stop wilting) – approx. 25 applications of 12-13 mm. Maintain sufficient moisture for growth and to prevent desiccation after tops die off.

https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/plants/fruit-and-vegetables/specialty-crops/ginger/land-requirements/irrigation-ginger

 

 Weeding

Ginger generally requires regular hand weeding during its growth period. Hand weed 1 month after planting. The frequency of subsequent weeding depends on weed density. Mulch with coconut leaves or rice straw to suppress weed growth. http://businessdiary.com.ph/2955/ginger-production-guide/#ixzz4vIFH2TnR

Pest and Disease Management

Bacterial wilt or Prem Rog (Ralstonia solanacearum)

Symptoms

It is the most serious disease and the symptoms can be noticed form July-August. The leaf margins of the affected plant turn bronze and curl backward. The whole plants wilt and die. The base of the infected pseudo stem and the rhizome emit foul smell. When the suspected pseudo stem is cut and immersed in a glass of clean water, milky exudates will ooze out from the cut end. Typical symptom is the wilting observed during afternoon in young seedlings.

Management

Seed contamination is the major source of infection. Hence, procure only healthy rhizome from disease free area. Treat the seed with Streptocyclin (20g/100 litre water). Remove the affected clumps and drench the soil with copper oxychloride 0.2%.

Soft rot or Paheli (Pythium aphanidrematum)

Symptoms

It is a serious seed as well as soil borne disease and the symptoms can be seen from July. Yellowing of leaves appear first on the lower leaves and proceeds to upper leaves. Roots arising from the affected rhizome become rotten and show brown discoloration of the rhizome tissue. Sometimes the pseudo stem comes off easily with a gentle pull. The rotten parts attract other fungi, bacteria and insects particularly the rhizome fly. During the rainy season, this disease spreads very fast from infected field to healthy field.

Management

Avoid water logging. At the time of sowing, treat the rhizome with Bordeaux mixture (1%) and again with Trichoderma @8-10-gm/litre water.

Remove the badly affected plants and drench around the infected plants, after slightly removing of soil with Bordeaux mixture (1%) or copper oxychloride @ 2g/1 liters of water.

Dry rot (Fusarium and Pratylenchus complex)

Symptoms

It is a fungus-nematode complex disease. In contrast to rhizome rot, dry rot appears in field in small patches and spreads slowly. The affected plants appear stunted and exhibit varying degree of foliar yellowing. Older leaves dry up first followed by younger ones. In advanced stage the rhizome, when cut open, show a brownish ring and is mainly restricted to cortical region. The pseudo stems of the dry rot affected plants does not come off with a gentle pull in contrast to soft rot. The affected rhizomes are shrunken, dry and are not marketable.

Management

Soil application of mustard oil cake at the rate of 40 kg/ha before sowing in furrows can check the nematode problem. Hot water treatment (51OC for 10 min) followed by seed treatment with Bordeaux mixture (1%) effectively checks the problem.

Leaf spot / blight (Phyllostricta zingiberi)

Symptoms

Small spindle to oval spots appear on younger leaves. The spots have white papery centres and dark brown margins surrounded by yellowish halos. The spot later increases in size and coalesce to form larger spots which eventually decrease the photosynthetic area. In the case of severe infection, the entire leaves dry up.

Management

Spray Bordeaux mixture (1%) 3-4 times at 15 days’ interval with the initiation of the disease. Good control is achieved by growing the crop under partial shade.

Insect Pests of Ginger

White Grub or Khumlay Holotrichia spp.

It is a sporadic pest, sometimes causes serious damage. The grub feeds on the roots and newly formed rhizomes. The infestation is generally more during August-September. The adult beetles, after emergence from pupae settle on the Ficus or other trees in congregation which can be collected and destroyed. The entomophagous fungus Metarrhizium anisophilae can be mixed with fine cow dung and then applied in the field to control the grubs. In endemic areas opt for soil application of neem cake @ 40 kg/ha before sowing.

Shoot borer (Conogethes punctiferalis)

The larvae bore the tender pseudostem and reach the central portion by feeding on the internal tissues, thus resulting in yellowing and drying of shoots. Infestation may occur from June to October. Spray Nimbicidine (2-5ml/l) or Beauveria bassiana@ 2-5ml/l

Shoot boring weevil (Prodioctes haematicus)

The grubs bore into the pseudostem and cause dead hearts. Remove alternate host plants such as wild turmeric and cardamom. The congregating adult beetles can be collected and destroyed. Spray Nimbicidine @ 2-5ml/l or Carbofuran 3G granules @ 30 kg/ha immediately after mother rhizome extraction. In the case of severe infestation, spray Endosulfan @ 0.07 %.

 

Integrated Pest and Disease Management for Ginger

  • Field hygiene is more important to manage the pests and diseases. Avoid water stagnation, provide adequate drainage, remove weeds periodically, apply only well rotted FYM compost @ 25 t/ha and thoroughly incorporate it in the soil, apply dolomite @ 2 t/ha before sowing to increase soil pH, sow ginger in raised beds of at least 25-30 cm height and provide mulching with leaves and twigs of chilaune (Schima wallichii) or Banmara (Eupatorium sp) or utis (Alnus nepalensis) or mustard oil cake @ 5 to 10 t/ha and follow crop rotation of 2 to 4 years depending on the incidence and severity of the diseases. Soil application of Biocontrol agents like T. harzianum and P. fluorescence during planting time @ 2-5% gives effective control of the diseases.
  • Use good quality rhizome for sowing. Procure disease free seeds from disease free area.
  • Before sowing, treat the rhizome in hot water (51oC for 10 min) and again in solution of Bordeaux mixture 1% for 15 min. Add Streptocyclin (20g/ 100 l water) if bacterial wilt is also a problem. Dry the rhizome in shade and then sow. If cut rhizome are to be planted, they should be treated after cutting.
  • Treat rhizome with bio-inoculant Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum followed by soil application 60 days after planting to reduce rhizome rot.
  • Once the diseases is spotted in the field, remove the affected clumps and drench the soil with Bordeaux mixture 1% at 15 days interval.
  • Diseased plants should be identified while the crop is in field. Rhizomes from such plants should not be selected for the seed purpose
  • Mechanical collection and destruction of grubs, weevils, larvae and adult beetle periodically will reduce the incidence of insect pests. If white grub is predominant, apply Nimbicidine @ 2-5 ml/ l.
  • It has been observed that diseases spread fast after mother rhizome (mau) extraction. Hence, drench the soil with fungicide immediately after mau extraction and again this practice has to be followed keeping into consideration the cost – benefit ratio of mau extraction and disease incidence. http://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/crop-production/technologies-for-ne-india/pests-and-diseases-management-in-ginger

Harvest and Marketing

Harvesting of ginger starts from October and normally continues until April/May. This largely depends on the market situation as ginger can be left on the ground (not harvested) for two years.

Unknown to many, ginger, a popular spice in Nigeria, has been a money-spinner for those who have embarked on trading in it in large commercial quantity. Found in almost all the local markets across the country, the plant, commonly used as spice, is also being consumed for healing and relief effect.

The list of ginger uses is almost endless, being a pungent spicy herb and one of the more popular food spices. They range from baked products like gingerbread, ginger biscuits, ginger cookies to drinks like ginger tea, ginger beer, ginger ale, etc.

While a number of Nigerians have restricted its uses to these two aspects, some others have gone into its cultivation and acquisition for the purpose of export.

Nigeria produces an average of 40,000 metric tonnes of fresh weight ginger per annum. Out of this production, an average of 10 per cent is locally consumed as fresh ginger, while 90 per cent is dried and 20 per cent of this is consumed locally for various uses while the remaining is exported.

According to the World Trade Promotion Export/Import Limited, Nigerian ginger is highly valued in international markets for its aroma, pungency and high oil and oleoresin content. Ginger has various uses depending on the state of processing and purpose. Ginger oil and oleoresin are extracted from dried ginger.

Ginger contains about two per cent essential oil. The oil is extracted and distilled from rhizomes for various uses in confectionery, perfumery, beverages and pharmaceuticals.

Dried ginger is used predominantly for flavouring coffee especially in the Middle East. It contains medicinal qualities and it is also used to calm nausea and aids digestion. Dried ginger is used in many different cooking methods. It is an important spice in Asia, the Caribbean and African cooking.

The total world market estimate for dried ginger where Nigeria is part of the top three major suppliers is $15m with an annual growth rate of three per cent. Nigeria’s world market share of dried split ginger is put at an average of 20 per cent exporting ginger to various countries in the world.

The traditional export markets include the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Netherlands, France, United States of America, Russia, Saudi Arabia among others.

In 1999, it was estimated that around 5,000 to 6,000 metric tonnes of dried split ginger was exported from Nigerian to various destinations. Ginger is an important Nigerian export crop, which is quoted in the acclaimed trade journal, the Public Ledger, published in London and circulated world wide since 1760.

“Traders describe the market for gingers as stable and quiet. There are some background growths evident in the import statistics, but this is a complex market with end users responding to different drives. On the up side, an increase in demand is claimed in the food preparation sector, as the consumer becomes more adventurous in seeking new flavours.”

In Nigeria, harvesting starts from October and normally continues until April/May. This largely depends on the market situation as ginger can be left on the ground (not harvested) for two years.

Most of the dried ginger that are available for international trade are simply sun dried over a few days, but artificial drying is also used in areas lacking a defined dry season to coincide with the harvest. The rhizome is dried to between 10 and 12 per cent moisture content.

Dried ginger is usually presented in a split or sliced form. Splitting is said to be preferred to slicing, as slicing loses more flavour, but the sliced are easier to grind and this is the predominant form of dried ginger currently in the market.

Whole dried ginger are also traded, but the the drying is inefficient and expensive, and there is the risk of spoilage during the long drying time. Sometimes, ginger is peeled, but this is expensive in labour, although it gives a fine appearance to the rhizome, the flavour and the weight are reduced.

In Nigeria, there are only two known factories in which only one is currently operating at a very low capacity, adding that ginger can be processed in the form of ginger oil, oleoresin, powder and other extracts for various purposes.

New exporters to the market must aim at providing quality service that will distinguish them from the existing players in order to compete successfully. Good quality, competitive pricing and reliability of supply are prerequisite for market success.

Ginger is traded in three basic forms, which include green, pickled or preserved and dried.

“Dried ginger is standardised at 50kg for export. Nigerian ginger is highly valued in the international markets for its aroma, pungency and high oil and oleoresin contents. The dried ginger is usually sold in split form. No bleaching is carried out and the colour is yellow. The Nigerian flavour is more pungent and has lemony tone than ginger from places like China and India.

“Some of the importing countries are the United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Germany while those in the export trade are China, India, Nigeria, Jamaica and Sierra Leone.”

 

Economic Importance

Medical research has shown that ginger root is an effective treatment for nausea caused by motion sickness or other illness and also contains many antioxidants. Powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules for medicinal use. Modern research on nausea and motion sickness used approximately 1 gram of ginger powder daily. Although very effective against all forms of nausea, PDR health officials do not recommend taking ginger root for morning sickness commonly associated with pregnancy, though Chinese women traditionally eat ginger root during pregnancy to combat morning sickness.

The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (compiled by health professionals and pharmacists), states that ginger is likely safe for use in pregnancy when used orally in amounts found in foods. Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as “stomach settlers” for generations in countries where the beverages are made. Ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States in the past. Research has also found ginger to be a powerful antioxidant. Ginger has also been shown in research to have a regulatory role in the natural inflammatory response of the body. In India ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache. In Myanmar, ginger and local sweet(Htan nyat) which is made from palm tree juce are boiled together and taken to prevent the Flu. Ginger has also been commonly used to treat inflammation, although medical studies as to the efficacy of ginger in decreasing inflammation have shown mixed results. There are several studies that demonstrate very positive results on minimizing joint pain from arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. It may also have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties, making it effective in treating heart disease; while early studies have shown some efficacy, it is too early to determine whether further research will bear this out. The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger root is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shoagoles and gingerols, volatile oils that compose about 1%–3% by weight of fresh ginger. The gingerols have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic, antibacterial, and GI tract motility effects. Ginger is on the GRAS list from FDA. However, like other herbs, ginger may be harmful because it may interact with other medications, such as warfarin; hence, a physician or pharmacist should be consulted before taking the herb as a medicinal agent or on a long-term basis. Ginger is also contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones, because the herb promotes the release of bile from the gallbladder. Ginger can also be used to prevent scurvy.

until April/May. This largely depends on the market situation as ginger can be left on the ground (not harvested) for two years.

Uses: The list of ginger uses is almost endless, being a pungent spicy herb and one of the more popular food spices. They range from baked products like gingerbread, ginger biscuits, ginger cookies to drinks like ginger tea, ginger beer, ginger ale, etc. Ginger contains about two per cent essential oil. The oil is extracted and distilled from rhizomes for various uses in confectionery, perfumery, beverages and pharmaceuticals. Dried ginger is used predominantly for flavouring coffee especially in the Middle East. It contains medicinal qualities and it is also used to calm nausea and aids digestion. Dried ginger is used in many different cooking methods. It is an important spice in Asia, the Caribbean and African cooking.

 

Export

 

Specifications:

Moisture content:                 6-9% max

Oil content:                            1-2%

Impurities:                             0-2%max

 

Export market: 

The export markets for ginger include the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Netherlands, France, United States of America, Russia, Saudi Arabia among others.

Export Price: 

The export free on board price of ginger ranges from USD 1200 -1600/MT depending on the type and form in which the ginger is packaged and also the negotiation made with the buyers.

The quality of Nigeria Ginger being the best in the world has contributed to and is an indicator of the increased demand for Ginger. Within the larger Ginger market, our target markets are the biggest buyers. These discerning customers want the highest quality Ginger roots, properly processed and without residue. Ginger is an upright tropical plant (Zingibar Officionale) that grows to about 4 feet tall. It grows from an aromatic tuber like rhizome (underground stem) which is warty and branched. It is a perennial plant which is grown commercially as an annual crop. The flesh of ginger rhizome can be yellow, white or red in colour, depending upon the variety. It is covered with a brownish skin that may either be thick or thin, depending upon whether the plant was harvested when it was mature or young. It is immature when it is harvested before the 8th month after planting and it is matured when it is harvested between 8th- 9th after planting. Karchiaginger Roots is widely used around the world as a spice or food addictive. This is because of its aromatic, pungent and spicy contents. Its chemical compounds include Potassium, magnesium, copper, manganese, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and Calories

Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) is produced in six states of the Federation namely, Kaduna, Nasarawa, Benue, Niger and Gombe with Kaduna as the major producer. Nigeria’s production in 2005 was estimated at 110,000 metric tonnes (FAO). Out of this, 10% is locally consumed as fresh ginger while 90% is dried primarily for the export markets.

The commodity is highly valued in international markets for its aroma, pungency and high oil and Aleo resin content. Nigeria is the third largest exporter of ginger in the world after China and India.

Ginger is an important Nigerian export crop. The major market destinations are the UK, USA, Japan, Canada, Belgium, Germany and the Middle East.

The major stakeholders are Belphins Nigeria Limited, Goldchains International and Olam Nigeria Limited.

 

Export Product Profile: Ginger

Description: Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) is a commodity that is highly valued in international markets for its aroma, pungency and high oil and Aleo resin content. Nigeria is the third largest exporter of ginger in the world after China and India. Most of the dried ginger that are available for international trade are simply sun dried over a few days, but artificial drying is also used in areas lacking a defined dry season to coincide with the harvest. The rhizome is dried to between 10 and 12 per cent moisture content. Dried ginger is usually presented in a split or sliced form. Splitting is said to be preferred to slicing, as slicing loses more flavour, but the sliced are easier to grind and this is the predominant form of dried ginger currently in the market.

Local price: The local price of of dry split ginger deliver to Lagos from kafanchan in Kaduna state varies from N170,000 and N200,000.

 

Split Dry Ginger for Export to Europe

Quantity Needed :9mt – One FCL

Packaging:25Kg – Bags

Delivery:Wasa Delmas Deport Apapa Ports,Lagos, Nigeria

The Quality parameter is as below:

Total Ash (% w/w) max(ISO 928), 8:00 a

Acid Insoluble Ash (% w/w) max (ISO 930), 2 b

Moisture (% w/w) max(ISO 939), 12 a

Volatile Oil(v/w) min(ISO 6571) 1.5 a

a: Indian Standards Institute

b: European Spice Association

Extraneous matter and foreign matter should not exceed 1% and 2%, respectively.

Should be free from live and/or dead insects, insect fragments and rodent contamination visible to the naked eye (corrected if necessary for abnormal vision).

Microbiology: Salmonella must be absent in (at least) 25 g of material.

Yeast and mold: 105/g (target), absolute maximum: 106 /g. E.Coli: 102/g (target), absolute: 103/g.
European Union has fixed limits for aflatoxin, which should not exceed 10 ppb (total aflatoxins), and 5 ppb for aflatoxins B1. Individual European Union member countries have their own limits varying from 1 to 20 ppb.

http://21stplacelive.com/Ginger.htm

The production of ginger (zingiber officinal roscae) in Nigeria started since 1927. It is a tropical monocotyledons herbaceous perennial plant (purse leaves, 1975) with leafy shoots and grows to a height of 30-100 rain fall, depending on cultivars and growing environment. Between 1960 and 1986, Nigeria exported a total of 56,224,519. Tones of ginger valued at 618,812 dollars to European and northern America countries.

The product is at the centre of the contract because that is what the buyer wants and they need it in certain Quality /Quantity which ultimately affects the price. For the purpose of this write-up, the international standard specification of ginger is given below

Moisture content: 6-9% max

Oil content: 1-2%

Impurities: 0-2%max

To obtain an export license, you need to register a limited liability company with the corporate affairs commission (CAC).

Then the following documents will be submitted to the Nigerian export promotion council.

  1. A duly completed export license application form obtained from the Nigerian Export Promotion Council.
  2. Copy of certificate of incorporation
  3. Memorandum and articles of association
  4. Certified true copy of Form C.A.C 7 and C.A.C 2

The return on investment on the export of ginger is estimated between 10%- 15%.

Packaging is usually in 50/80/100 KG PP bags.

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Processing

We specialize in the designing and manufacturing of Ginger processing machinery.
Complete lines and technology for Ginger processing as well as reliable service worldwide by our skilled engineering.  It is our goal to be of service to our customers as effectively as possible. Raw gingers are separated from roots and leaves. The ginger is cleaned and separated from bad ginger. Cleaned gingers are peeled and chopped and send to a soaking unit for a definite period. Soaked gingers are dried in a specially designed dryer. Essential oils and oleoresin extracted from the ginger. The dried gingers are then pulverized to make it powder and further are packed as per requirements.

 

Complete Sets of Ginger Processing Production Line.

1. Washing
2. Sorting
3. Blanching
4. Cooling
5. Slicing
6. Crushing
7. Preheater / Pasteuriser
8. Filling & Packaging

Read more http://www.food-processing.net/ginger-processing-plant.html

 

Quality Characteristics and Criteria

Desired quality characteristics include skin color; plumpness of tuber pieces; sheen on skin; and absence of vegetative sprouts, blemishes, soil, and insect injury. Young or “baby” ginger is bright yellow to brown and has a high sheen with greenish-yellow vegetative buds but no sprouts. There is little or no fiber in young ginger, and it is often used as a vegetable snack.

Grades, Sizes, and Packaging Rhizomes are sold in full telescoping 13.6 kg (30 lb) or 6.8 kg (20 lb) fiberboard cartons or 1.7 kg (5 lb) cartons with film bags. Perforated low-density polyethylene bags are becoming more common. Fresh young ginger is also sold in trays with an plastic over-wrap. Pre-Cooling Conditions Forced-air or room-cooling to 12 to 14°C (54 to 57°F) should be used. Optimum Storage Conditions Mature ginger rhizomes can be stored at 12 to 14°C (54 to 57°F) with 85 to 90% relative humidity (RH) for 60 to 90 days. Storage at 13°C (55°F) with 65% RH leads to extensive dehydration and a wilted appearance (Akamine 1962, Paull et al. 1988). Superficial mold growth can occur if condensation collects on rhizomes, especially on the broken ends. Young ginger rapidly loses water and will wilt in a few days at 25o C (77o F). To store at a high RH and avoid condensation, holding the rhizome in sand with water-absorbent polymers has been recommended (Liu et al. 2014). https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/VC-2.pdf

 

References

http://www.worldstopexports.com/top-cucumbers-exporting-countries/

http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-world-leaders-in-cucumber-production.html https://www.foramfera.com/marketresearchreports/agriculture-agro-processing-forestry-and-fishing/ginger-powder-production-packaging-and-sales-local-export-in-nigeriathe-feasibility-report/

http://businessdiary.com.ph/2955/ginger-production-guide/#ixzz4vI8s0EQO

http://homeguides.sfgate.com/kind-soil-ginger-like-42476.html

http://agriculturenigeria.com/farming-production/horticulture/ginger

https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/plants/fruit-and-vegetables/specialty-crops/ginger/land-requirements/irrigation-ginger

http://businessdiary.com.ph/2955/ginger-production-guide/#ixzz4vIFH2TnR

http://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/crop-production/technologies-for-ne-india/pests-and-diseases-management-in-ginger

http://21stplacelive.com/Ginger.htm

http://www.food-processing.net/ginger-processing-plant.html

https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/VC-2.pdf

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