The pineapple is a tropical and subtropical fruit grown in many countries in Africa. In Uganda it is mainly grown south of Lake Kyoga and western Uganda. It is a tradable crop and generates reasonable income. It is used as a fruit as well as for producing juice. It is also used for making jam. In addition, it contains a protein digesting enzyme bromelain. Therefore, it can be used as a meat tenderizer. Leaves are used for making ropes and coarse cloth. Waste products from the juice canning industry are used as animal feed. http://www.naads.or.ug/files/downloads/PINEAPPLE%20PRODUCTION.pdf
Climate and Soil Requirement
The best soils for pineapple production are non-compacted, well-aerated and free-draining loams, sandy loams and clay loams with no heavy clay or rock within one metre of the surface. Good drainage is essential because poor drainages leads to a weak root system, which makes the plant more susceptible to root and heart rot diseases. A soil pH in the range of 4.5-5.6 is optimal for pineapple production.
Temperature is the most important climatic factor affecting productivity. The optimum air temperature is 32°C during the day and 20°C at night. For every 1°C above or below, the optimum growth rates decrease by about 6 per cent.
During periods of intense sunlight and high temperature (above about 35°C), fruit is susceptible to sunburn damage. A frost-free site is essential.
For non-irrigated crops, rainfall should be well distributed throughout the year and more than 750 mm per year. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/plants/fruit-and-vegetables/fruit-and nuts/pineapples/land-requirements-pineapple
“Smooth Cayenne” is a spineless pineapple cultivar that boasts sugary, low-fiber flesh and striped leaves. According to Purdue University, “Smooth Cayenne” accounts for 90 percent of the world’s canned fruit, despite the cultivar’s susceptibility to disease. Varieties of “Smooth Cayenne” include “Hilo,” a compact variety that was developed in Hawaii in 1960; “St. Michael,” an exceptionally sweet variety that lacks the highly acidic, tart flavor of most pineapples; and “Giant Kew,” a large-fruited variety popular in India that may weigh as much as 22 pounds.
“Abacaxi” is a spiny, disease-resistant variety that produces tall pineapples marked by white, nearly translucent flesh that is tender, juicy and rich. Though considered one of the most delicious pineapple varieties, the plant, and its many varieties, ship poorly due to their fragility. “Sugarloaf,” a variety with equally tender, rich flesh and a conical or round shape, is derived from “Abacaxi,” and several strains have been developed from “Sugarloaf.” “Sugarloaf” strains include “Black Jamaica” and “Montufar,” a juicy, yellow-fruited variety.
Also known as “Common Rough,” “Queen” is a compact, dwarf variety that has a better tolerance of cold and disease than “Smooth Cayenne.” The plant produces dark yellow, fragrant fruits with a small core. It is more commonly used to eat fresh, as it does not can well. “Queen” varieties include South African “Natal Queen,” and “MacGregor,” a firm-fleshed fruit that grows from a spreading, broad-leaved and robust plant.
“Red Spanish” is a tough variety grown in the West Indies, Mexico, and Venezuela. Fruits are light yellow, high in fibre and aromatic. The fruit is not nearly as tender as “Abacaxi,” so it doesn’t suffer as much from shipping and handling. Varieties include “Cabezona,” a large-fruited variety that must be cut off the plant with a machete due to its large, strong stem, and “Valera,” a small variety that has purple- and green-tinged, narrow leaves and purple-skinned fruits with white flesh. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/pineapple-plant-varieties-53203.html
Pineapples can be grown in a variety of soil types but prefer mildly acid soils (pH 5,5_6,5). However, there are certain requirements for successful pineapple production, which include:
Preparing the soil
- Remove trees, stumps and stones
- Subsoil (rip) to a depth of 800 to 900 mm under dry conditions
- Disc, plough and till the soil a number of times, to achieve a fine tilt, for effective plant rooting
- Ridge the soil for better drainage, temperature and to improve aeration
- Have soil samples analysed at least 6 months before planting to determine fertilisation and fumigation requirements
Unlike many other crops grown from seed, pineapples are grown by planting various parts of the plant according to the cultivar, where it is going to be produced, and the cultivation methods practised in the area.
Although crowns are mostly used as planting material for the Cayenne cultivar, they are considered uneconomical for the Queen cultivar because of the length of time they take to bear.
Suckers are planted in the case of Queen pineapple production. Slips bear sooner than crowns but they require a great deal of labour (to break them out and to remove the small fruit attached to their bases). Stumps are generally used when no other planting material is available.
A crown or top
In small plots or on very steep slopes, planting is done manually using the traditional short-handled narrow-bladed hoe, the handle of which, 12 in (30 cm) long, is used to measure the distance between plants. Crowns are set firmly at a depth of 2 in (5 cm); slips and suckers at 3 1/2 to 4 in (9 10 cm). Butts, after trimming and drying for several days, are laid end-to-end in furrows and covered with 4 in (10 cm) of soil.
Double-rowing has been standard practice for many years, the plantlets set 10 to 12 in (25 30 cm) apart and staggered, not opposite, in the common rows, and with 2 ft (60 cm) between the two rows. An alley 3, 5 1/2 or 6 ft (.9, 1.6 or 1.8 m) wide is maintained between the pairs, allowing for plant populations of 17,400, 15,800 or 14,500 per acre (42,700, 37,920 or 33,800 per ha) respectively. Close spacing gives highest total crop weight—e.g. 18,000 plants/acre = 28.8 tons (43,200 plants/ha = 69.12 tons). However, various trials have shown that overcrowding has a negative effect, reducing fruit size and elongating the form undesirably, and it reduces the number of slips and suckers per plant.
Some plantings are mulched with bagasse. In large operations, asphalt-treated paper, or black plastic mulch is regarded as essential. It retards weeds, retains warmth in cool seasons, reduces loss of soil moisture, and can be laid by machines during the sterilization and pre-fertilization procedures. Mulch necessitates removal of basal leaves of crowns, slips and suckers and the use of a tool to punch a hole at the pre-marked planting site for the insertion of each plantlet. The mulch is usually rolled onto rounded beds 3 1/4 ft (1 m) wide.
Research on the potential of machines to replace the hard labour of planting pineapples was begun in Hawaii in 1945. A homemade device was first employed in Queensland in 1953. Early semi-mechanical planters were self-propelled platforms with driver and two men who made the holes in the mulch and set the plants in place. With a 2-row planter, 3 men can set 7,000 plants per hour of operation. Frequent stops are necessary to reload with planting material. With improved equipment, mechanical planting has become standard practice in large plantations everywhere. The most sophisticated machines have attachments which concurrently apply premixed fertilizer and lay a broad centre strip of mulch, set the plantlets along each edge, and place a narrow strip along the outer sides. The only manual operation, apart from driving, is feeding of the plantlets to the planting unit. With this system, up to 50,000 plants have been set out per day. http://businessdiary.com.ph/4473/pineapple-production-guide/#ixzz4vI09YZA1
For the control of most broad-leaved weeds and annual grasses, contact herbicides can be used. Apply pre-emergence herbicides immediately after planting the pineapples, before root development and weed emergence.
The herbicide should be applied according to the type of soil:
Initial weed killer application (spray)
- 3-5 kg bromacil/ha: low rate for sandy soils
- 3-5 l diuron/ha: low rate for sandy soils
- 5-6 l atrazine/ha: where euphorbia is a problem
- 3-4 l ametryn/ha: if weeds are already present
- Booster applications (at 12 months interval)
- 2 l diuron/ha
- 2 kg bromacil/ha: at grower’s discretion
- 4-6 l atrazine/ha: if euphorbia is present
- 3-4 l ametryn/ha: if weeds are already present
Gardeners generally start a new pineapple plant by using the green top of a pineapple fruit, which is twisted off of the ripe fruit. After the bottom leaves get trimmed off of the green top, the top is placed in perpetual irrigation in the form of soaking. For the best sprouting results, the pineapple top should sit in approximately 1/2 inches of water. After three to four weeks, the bottom of the stem that’s soaking in the water will produce new roots and the top is ready for transplanting into the ground. To prevent stagnation or rotting, the water used to irrigate the pineapple top should be exchanged for fresh water every couple of days.
Because pineapple plants are drought tolerant, the schedule for irrigation at the time of planting and thereafter should be intermittent. Once a newly rooted pineapple top gets planted, the planting site receives immediate irrigation with enough water to moisten the dirt to a depth of 6 to 8 inches. After the initial irrigation, apply water only once every three to four days, giving the soil time to dry out between watering.
Pineapple plants aren’t very finicky when it comes to soil nutrient levels. However, regular fertilization encourages the best flower production, and therefore the best fruit production. Once a month, use a soluble houseplant fertilizer, diluted in water, to irrigate the pineapple plant instead of the standard water-only irrigation. Any liquid fertilizer labeled for use on houseplants will suffice. The fertilizer should be applied according to its manufacturer-specific guidelines.
Two cultural practices can enhance soil moisture retention and improve your irrigation practices. The first is the addition of organic matter to the soil at the time of planting. Examples include compost and aged manure, which is spread 2 to 3 inches thick on the surface of the planting site and stirred into the top foot of top soil. This improves the soil structure and increases soil drainage, ensuring that the water used during irrigation spreads evenly among the pineapple plant’s roots. Without this organic matter, the pineapple plant’s roots can drown in the waterlogged dirt. The second cultural practice is mulch. When bark chips, wood chips or similar matter is spread in a 2- to 3-inch-thick layer around the pineapple plant, it helps lock moisture in the dirt while also keeping weeds at bay.
Choose a dry fertilizer that provides 6 to 10 percent nitrogen, 6 to 10 percent phosphoric acid and 6 to 10 percent potash. These are represented by the NPK on the label of the fertilizer. The fertilizer you choose should also contain 4 to 6 percent magnesium (Mg). Apply 1 to 2 ounces every eight weeks for the first three months. In months four to six, apply 1 to 3 ounces every eight weeks. At 6 to 12 months, use 2 to 6 ounces of fertilizer. At 12 to 16 months, use 3 to 6 ounces. After 16 months, use 17 to 24 ounces of fertilizer every eight weeks.
You can also feed your pineapple with a liquid fertilizer that is sprayed on the leaves. This is called foliar feeding. These should be applied every 8 to 10 weeks. Liquid fertilizer should have about the same NPK and Mg ratio as dry fertilizer.
Two or three times a year, you can also use a foliage spray that contains zinc and manganese. Some of these sprays may also contain iron. If they do not, and if your regular fertilizer does not contain iron, use a 1 percent ferrous sulfate solution every eight to 10 weeks.
Compost and Mulch
Pineapples do not need much compost to thrive. If you’d like to use compost, mix a small amount in the soil before you plant your pineapple. This will help the soil hold water and nutrients that your pineapple will need. Mulch may also be used to help keep soil moist between waterings and will prevent weeds from competing with your pineapple for nutrients. If you use mulch, keep it 8 to 12 inches from the base of the plant to prevent pests from moving in and to keep air circulating properly. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/pineapple-plant-fertilizer-37716.html
Pest and Diseases Management
Common Pests and Diseases
Yellow to red or very dark brown discoloration of fruit flesh; infected tissues develop a granular texture with woody consistency and speckled color; single or multiple fruitlets may be affected; vascular system may appear speckled right down to core of fruit; symptoms develop during the last month of fruit maturation.
Emergence of the disease is favored by warm, wet weather
There are currently no methods of controlling the disease; the pineapple variety Smooth Cayenne appears to be moderately resistant to the disease
Bacterial heart rot and fruit collapse
Water-soaked lesions on the white basal sections of leaves in the central whorl which may spread to all leaves in the central whorl; midportions of leaves become olive green in color with a bloated appearance; infected fruits exude juices and the shell becomes olive green; cavities form within the fruit
Disease is thought to be spread from the juices of infected fruits; bacteria in the juice can enter leaves through wounds; ants acts as vectors for the bacteria
Remove and destroy infected fruits; avoid the use of infected crowns for seed material to prevent spread of the disease; planting to avoid flowering when adjacent field is fruiting can reduce disease development; use of miticides and control of ants can significantly reduce disease incidence
Butt rot, Black rot & White leaf spot
Soft black rot which begins at the area where the seed piece detaches from the mother plant; entire seed piece may be rotted; black rot of fruit causes a soft, watery rot which darkens with time; small brown, wet spots develop on leaves; leaf spots enlarge and turn gray-brown with light brown margins.
Fungus survives in soil and pineapple residue; infects plants through fresh wounds
Seed material should be stored on mother plants during dry weather and with good air circulation; freshly removed seed material should be dipped in an appropriate fungicide within 12 hours of removal from the mother plant; avoiding bruising and wounding of fruit during harvest helps to reduce black rot; harvested fruit should be dipped in an appropriate fungicide within 6-12 hours of harvest to prevent disease development during shipping
Mealybugs (Pineapple mealybug)
Flattened oval to round disc-like insect covered in waxy substance on tree branches; insects attract ants which may also be present; insect colony may also be associated with growth of sooty mold due to fungal colonization of sugary honeydew excreted by the insect; plants may show symptoms of mealybug wilt (see entry)
Insects have a wide host range; often tended by ants which farm them for their sugary honeydew secretions; transmit mealybug wilt in pineapple
Mealybugs can potentially be controlled by natural enemies such as lady beetles; ant populations which tend the mealybugs should be treated with an appropriate insecticide
Phytophthora heart and root rot
Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot in pineapple field
Phytophthora symptoms on pineapple fruit
Pineapple heart rot
Phytophthora symptoms on pineapple
Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot in pineapple field
Young leaves failing to elongate and turning chlorotic; heart leaves wilting and turning brown; terminal whorl can be easily pulled from mother plant; water-soaked tissue at base of leaves; foul smell; leaves may be turning red and yellow with necrotic leaf margins and leaf tips; plants can easily be pulled out of the ground; fruits color prematurely
Fungi can survive in soil and plant debris for many years
Planting in raised beds helps to drain the soil and reduces incidence of the disease; mulch from pineapple debris should be avoided; pre-planting dips and foliar applications of Fosetyl Al are very effective at controlling the disease
Pineapple wilt virus (PWV)
Pineapple plants infected with mealybug wilt
Leaves turning red; tips of leaves become withered and turn brown; plants can be easily removed from the soil
Virus is transmitted by mealybugs; ants protect mealybug populations from predators and parasites and can allow mealybugs populations to reach very damaging levels if left uncontrolled
Ants should be controlled with an appropriate insecticide https://plantvillage.org/topics/pineapple/infos
Harvesting and Post-harvest Handling
It is difficult to judge when the pineapple is ready to be harvested. The grower must depend a great deal on experience. Size and colour change alone are not fully reliable indicators. Conversion of starch into sugars takes place rapidly in just a few days before full maturity. In general, for the fresh fruit market, the summer crop is harvested when the eye shows a light pale green colour. At this season, sugar content and volatile flavours develop early and steadily over several weeks. The winter crop is about 30 days slower to mature, and the fruits are picked when there is a slight yellowing around the base. Even then, winter fruit tends to be more acid and have a lower sugar level than summer fruit, and the harvest period is short. Fruits for canning are allowed to attain a more advanced stage. But overripe fruits are deficient in flavour and highly perishable.
Some people judge ripeness and quality by snapping a finger against the side of the fruit. A good, ripe fruit has a dull, solid sound; immaturity and poor quality are indicated by a hollow thud.
In manual harvesting, one man cuts off or breaks off the fruits (depending on the cultivar) and tosses them to a truck or passes them to 2 other workers with baskets who convey them to boxes in which they are arranged with the stems upward for the removal of bracts and application of a 3% solution of benzoic acid on the cut stem of all fruits not intended for immediate processing. The harvested fruits must be protected from rain and dew. If moist, they must be dried before packing. All defective fruits are sorted out for use in processing.
If the work is semi-mechanized, the harvesters de-crown and trim the fruits and place them on a 30-ft conveyor boom which extends across the rows and carries the fruits to a bin on a forklift which loads it onto a truck or trailer. Some conveyors take the fruits directly into the canning factory from the field. In most regions of the world, pineapples are commonly marketed with crowns intact, but there is a growing practice of removing the crowns for planting. For the fresh fruit market, a short section of stem is customarily left on to protect the base of the fruit from bruising during shipment.
Total mechanical harvesting is achieved by 2 hydraulically operated conveyors with fingers on the top conveyor to snap off the fruit, the lower conveyor carrying it away to the de-crowners. After the fruit has been conveyed away, the workers go through the field to collect the crowns (where they have been left on the tops of the plants) and place them on the conveyors for a trip to the bins which are then fork lifted and the crowns dumped into a planting machine. http://businessdiary.com.ph/4473/pineapple-production-guide/#ixzz4vI19d1Kd
Endogenous Brown Spot (EBS). EBS is usually associated with exposure of pineapples before or after harvest to chilling temperatures, e.g. below 7°C for one week or longer. Symptoms are water-soaked, brown areas that begin as spots in the core area and enlarge to make the entire center brown in severe cases. The symptoms are not detectable externally unless the fruits are cut and the flesh exposed. The disorder is induced at 5-20 °C, which covers the recommended temperature range for storage of pineapple. A heat treatment at 35°C for one day has been shown to ameliorate EBS symptoms in pineapples transported at 7°C by inhibiting activity of polyphenol oxidase and consequently tissue browning. Waxing is effective in reducing chilling injury symptoms. However, black heart (BH) disorder and post harvest diseases will shorten the storage life of fruits at low temperature. BH, a physiological disorder, is considered the most critical problem in most pineapple producing countries including Australia, Philippines, the United States (Hawaii), Taiwan and Côte d’Ivoire.
Exposure of pineapples to temperatures below 7°C results in chilling injury. Ripe fruits are less susceptible than unripe or partially-ripe fruits. Symptoms include dull green color when ripened (failure to ripen properly), water- soaked flesh, darkening of the core tissue, increased susceptibility to decay, and wilting and discoloration of crown leaves.
Thielaviopsis rot (black rot, water blister).Caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa, may start at the stem and advance through most of the flesh with the only external symptom being slight skin darkening due to water-soaking of the skin over rotted portions of the flesh. As the flesh softens, the skin above readily breaks under slight pressure.
Yeast fermentation. Caused by Saccharomyces spp, is usually associated with overripe fruit. The yeast enters the fruit through wounds. Fruit flesh becomes soft and bright yellow and is ruptured by large gas cavities.
- Careful handling to minimize mechanical injuries
- Prompt cooling and maintenance of optimum temperature and relative humidity throughout postharvest handling operations.
- Application of fungicides, such as thiabendazole (TBZ).
Types of packaging.
In most countries, pineapple harvested from the field for local and overseas markets are normally heaped onto lorries without using any containers. On arrival in wholesale markets, the fruit are transferred into bamboo or rattan baskets, stackable plastic containers or corrugated fibreboard (CFB) boxes. Despite the packing measures for the pineapple are not standardized, they are guided by the international packing norm for agricultural products according to the size.
In large scale pineapple production, the harvested fruits are deposited in drawers and transported to the packing plant soonest possible. At the packing house, pineapples are first cleaned of dirt, insects and any other foreign matter using blowers or brushes. The slips are removed and the peduncles are cut with a sharp knife to a length not exceeding 2 cm. This is in accordance to the requirement of the Codex Standard. The fruits are cleaned through washing and then submerged in disinfectant in trays as the fruits have to be dried before packing. Another alternative process consists of submerging the fruits completely in similar solution (with Triadimefon), this process is used especially to export toUnited StatesandEurope.
The cleaned pineapples should be packed in clean plastic boxes and bestowed. An important characteristic at this stage is that the boxes should have holes with lengthened form in all sides for the ventilation, because it allows a quick exit of the heat of the fruit. The packing also helps to promote the fruit’s sales because of the presentation, as well as the description of content and origin.
The use of appropriate packing for the product fulfils the following functions:
- to avoid the loss of aroma,
- to protect the product against the admission of flavours and disgusting scents,
- to offer a good period of conservation,
- to avoid the accumulation or loss of humidity,
- to protect the product against damages and
- to offer a space to print the necessary information about the product.
The preferred method of packing is to place the fruit vertically on the base of full-telescopic two-piece fiberboard carton with bursting strength 19.96 kg/cm2 and then to place dividers between the fruits to prevent rubbing and movement. Top and bottom ventilation, in addition to side vents are required, particularly where sea-shipments in break bulk are used. Where staples are used in carton construction, care should be taken to ensure complete staples closure to prevent fruit damage. With some cartons, this is not possible and fruit are laid horizontally in alternating directions; where two layers of fruit are packed, a layer of card is required between the layers: 6 counts – 1.75 kg fruit, 12 counts – 1.25 kg fruit, 12 counts – 1.00 kg fruit and 20 counts – 0.75 kg fruit.
Fruits are normally packed to a net weight of 10 to 15 kg depending on the carton and the market. High value small pineapples may be shipped in some instances at 6 kg, whereas the large fruit in some cases may be packed up to 20 kg and finally put in pallets. The boxes used in the packing are carefully checked to detect the presence of insects
In Malaysia, CFB boxes with net weight of 10 kg have been used for export to West Asian countries including Saudi Arabiaand United Arab Emirates (UAE). The fruits are arranged in a horizontal position in the box. The crown of each fruit is wrapped with perforated plastic sleeves to control water loss and wilting or yellowing of the crown. Each box contains fruit of uniform size and maturity. The base of the fruit can be lined with sponge to minimize mechanical injury in subsequent handling operations.
Potential Post-Harvest Losses
Losses in pineapples during air-transport are minimal if careful handling is employed. On sea-shipments and long term storage however, the fruit are more susceptible to post-harvest losses as a result of increased handling, control of temperature and disease incidence.
Mechanical damage: Bruising or puncturing caused by poor handling, dropping or abrasion, will result in localized areas of softening and development of secondary microbial infection.
Storage and Transportation
Pineapples require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions. Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate 40 – 60 times per hour with constant supply of fresh air, so as constantly to remove the ripening gases arising and to keep the CO2 content of the hold air low. Spoilage may occur as a result both of inadequate ventilation (danger of rotting) and of excessive ventilation (drying-out, weight loss. During storage, the disease can also infect green fruit. Ripe or bruised pineapples are highly susceptible to yeasty rot. Fresh pineapple is also susceptible to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa. The fruit shell becomes water-soaked and disintegrates and the underlying tissue becomes soft, watery and discolored. Both diseases can be managed by careful handling to avoid mechanical damage to the fruit. For control of black rot, dipping the peduncle cut end in 500 ppm benomyl immediately after trimming will provide some control.
Careful crop handling and postharvest contribute to the maintenance of quality of the products. Most pineapple cultivars can normally be stored for 4-5 weeks at 8-10 °C with a relative humidity of 90%. Use of an appropriate packing with a safe and functional protection can keep the quality of the pineapple until arrival to the final market.
For canned pineapple can sizes used are: 608×700 (108 oz), with a net weight of 3030 oz, 6 cans per box and a total weight of 20 kg per box; size 401×411 (30 oz), with a net weight per can of 820 oz, 24 cans per box and a total weight 24 kg per box; size 307×409 (20 oz), with a net weight of 560 oz, 24 cans per box and a total weight of 16 kg per box; size 307×309 (15 oz), with a net weight of 425 oz, 24 cans per box and a total weight of 13 kg per box; and size 307×201 (8 oz), with a net weight of 227 oz, 24 cans per box and a weight of 7 kg per box. The packing is in corrugated cardboard carton to prevent dents during transportation. The packing in tray of 12 cans for retail can size is available with and without shrink wrapping. Products can also be palletized on wooden pallet or slip sheet for the convenience of handling. For industrial use, product of 108 oz. can be palletized without cartons. Pineapple juice is extracted from selected fruits where pulp is controlled to the requirement. NFC (not from concentrate) pineapple juice is single strength at 12 ± 1 °Brix. It is aseptically processed, while some juice will be processed through evaporators to the desired Brix. All juice and concentrate will be stored in cold storage to preserve the quality. Frozen concentrate is stored at the temperature of -20°C. Aseptic product can be stored at the ambient temperature but it is recommended to be stored at 5 °C in order to preserve the quality and to prolong the storage life and packed in steel drum or wooden bin. The canned pineapples are packed in accordance with the US FDA, and are available in different sizes to serve both retail and institutional purposes.
The pallets, properly maintained in refrigeration chambers are loaded in the refrigerated containers. Each container has a capacity of 1500 boxes of 20 kg and/or 3000 approximately boxes of 10 kg. The refrigerated container is maintained at 7.5 – 8° C prior to export. Each container has a thermograph for the control and registration of the temperature while traveling as well as with the respective filters for the control of the ethylene.
|Pineapple refrigeration.||Loading of pineapples into container for export market|
Marketing and physical distribution of fresh pineapples inherently means moving the produce. The fruits are handled, either manually or mechanically, many times from harvest and through the distribution process before the consumer buys and prepares them to eat.
For domestic transportation the use of road vehicles offers substantial advantages of convenience, availability, flexibility permitting door-to-door delivery, and reasonable cost of transport. The use of road transportation for fresh produce is increasing and likely to increase in countries all over the world. Produce may be transported by pick-up, enclosed truck, open truck or refrigerated vehicle.
In the export market, the Malaysian experience indicates that the fruit can be exported without much problem to Asian markets includingHong Kong,Taiwan,Japan,KoreaandWest Asia. Pineapple is one of the very few fruits that can be exported toJapanin fresh form without any quarantine restrictions because it is not a host for fruit flies. The fruit can also be exported toEuropeprovided the total handling time from harvesting till marketing does not exceed 5 weeks. Fresh pineapples have been exported fromMalaysiaregularly by sea-reefers toWest Asiasince 1992.
Where sea-shipment is to be used, the fruit should be harvested on the day prior to shipment. Green fruit should be stored at 10ºC, 85 to 95% relative humidity, and under these conditions, should have a storage life of two to three weeks. This will be dependent on the sugar content and the agronomic conditions during production, in addition to the handling and storage procedures. Where exports are made by air with fruit harvested at more advanced stages of maturity, pre-export storage can be used and the suitable storage temperature decreases to 7.5ºC, 85 to 95% relative humidity.
At the cannery, fruit are unloaded from trailer trucks to conveyor bands where crowns are taken off and fruit are placed in a washing vat, then through an elevator the pineapples go to a roller sorter, and then separated in two different sizes and two slides take the fruit to different packing lines. Then they are peeled and cored by a machine called a Ginaca, named after its Hawaiian inventor, Henry Ginaca. The coreless cylinder is then moved to the dicer and the product is then ready to be packed in buckets holding 10 to 15 kg. The product is frozen in a chamber set at -20°C, for further transfer to distribution points or processing. Pineapple cylinders are sliced and canned with syrup, then passed through an exhauster with steam at 3 bar and 120 °C to eliminate air and create vacuum. Cans are sealed and sent to the autoclave. After the thermal treatment the cans are placed in a cooling vat for 10 minutes; this produces a thermal shock that inactivates bacteria. Finally, cans are labeled and boxed and ready for distribution.
The highest grade canned product is the skinned, cored fruit sliced cross-wise and packed in syrup. Pineapple may also be canned in chunks, wedges, tidbits or as crushed pineapple canned in its own juice.
Types of products
Traditionally pineapple is consumed fresh or canned. Diversification of pineapple products is a good strategy to increase consumption in the main markets of the world. Thus, pineapple is consumed in the form of single strength or concentrated juice, dehydrated and/or sugared, canned in slices or bits. Among the newer developments are dried chips, cocktail-type drinks, dried powdered, isotonic mixtures and wine; there are also new canned forms as whole fruit, bars, flakes and cubes. For fresh consumption, new varieties have been introduced: MD2, Josapine, LR41 and Gandul.
Essentially a prime table fruit, pineapple pulp is perfectly suited for conversion to frozen juices, nectars, drinks, jams, fruit cheese, concentrates or to be had by itself or with cream as a superb dessert. It can also be used in puddings, bakery fillings, and fruit meals for children, flavors for food industry, and also to make the most delicious ice cream and yoghurt. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like chutney, pickle, sauce. pineapple beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc. Ripe pineapple may be frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar (1-part sugar to 10 parts pineapple by weight) and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers. The diced flesh of ripe pineapple, bathed in sweetened or unsweetened limejuice, to prevent discoloration, can be quick-frozen. Half-ripe or green pineapples are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce. They are also eaten raw, dried, in confectionaries and a juice is extracted. Cores have been made into candles. Pineapple juice concentrate, either in frozen or aseptic packaging, is also growing in popularity.
The juice is the source of denatured alcohol and an alcoholic beverage, ‘Vin d’ Ananas’. Pressed peels and cores are used as food for livestock.
Pineapple waste is made into vinegar and soap. Leaves are a source of a hard fiber called ‘Pina Fibre’. The fruit which must be ripened on the plant contains about 15 percent sugar plus fruit acids, vitamins and minerals. There are many different varieties cultivated. In many countries, pineapple is also made into jam and used in the making of pineapple tarts, which is very popular especially during festive seasons.
Industrial processing possibilities of pineapple:
|Fruit cocktails||Dried pineapple slices|
|Fruit sauces||Ice cream|
Other different products of pineapple processing are
Dried pineapple: In this product, most of the free water of the fruit is eliminated. Usually, chunks or slices are prepared for better presentation and make handling easier. Final moisture is near 5%, and this allows the dried fruit to have a long shelf life as long as proper packing is provided and storage is done in a fresh place.
Juice: Pineapple juice is obtained from crushing fruit pieces and proper physical separation of the solids. Juice must be pasteurized and packed to extend its shelf life and a preservative or refrigerated storage may be used as additional barriers to microbial spoilage. No juice should reach the market if it becomes fermented or mixed with water. Packing may be plastic bottles or bags, coated cans, multi-laminate (plastic, paper, metal foil) or any newer materials. The pH values of the product must be controlled so it remains agreeable for human consumption. It is a common practice to blend batches of juices to attain proper acidity and sensory qualities. Juices from other fruits can be blended with pineapple’s and interesting mixtures make novel products.
Nectar: It is the product of blending juice with a certain amount of solids from the p ulp containing the same amount of °Brix as the original fruit. Normally, nectars are prepared by diluting fruit pulp to 30 °Brix. Methods of preservation and packing are similar to those described for juice.
Pulp: It is the product of the basic processing of peeled pineapple pulp by crushing. Pulp may be preserved by thermal treatment, by preservatives addition and proper handling in either small packages, or in bulk packages for further industrial processing and formulations as ice cream mixes, jellies, jams, sodas, etc.
Concentrated frozen pulp: It is the product from thermal treatment of the pulp to remove at least 50% of the initial water content. Concentration and freezing are applied to preserve the pulp for extended periods of time. The concentrated pulp is stable without the addition of chemicals as long as it is kept frozen. Upon reconstitution (by replenishing the previously eliminated water) the pulp should have the same qualities as the original pulp.
Aseptic pulp: It is the pulp that was heat-sterilized and packed aseptically; no chemicals are added and has a long shelf life. There is very specific equipment to perform this process and it is considered to be at the cutting edge of technology.
Concentrated Frozen Juice: This product is prepared by direct application of heat to pineapple juice to reduce its water content. Preservation methods are similar as described for concentrated pulp in which no chemical additives are used.
Jelly: Jellies fall in the group of fruit preserves, which are defined as semisolid products prepared by mixing 45 parts of fruit and 55 parts of sugar. This mixture is cooked until the final solids contents reach 65 to 68%. It is hot-filled for better stability. Usually, jellies are prepared from fruit juice and a gel-type product is obtained; it may or may not contain fruit pieces. Final textural firmness is dependent of the type of gel-forming agent as pectin which is added under controlled acidity and solids content to assure the proper texture of the product. To assure proper shelf life at ambient temperature, preservatives may be added. These chemicals are mainly used to control mold growth; but once the jar is open, it shall be stored under refrigeration.
Marmalades: This is also considered as a fruit preserve using the same proportions of fruit and sugar, and cooked until the same solids content as jellies. Consistency is semi-fluid and not a gel as jellies. Preservation criteria and shelf life considerations are similar as for jellies
Fillings: Pineapple pieces mixed with bakery cream may be used as cake fillings for institutional service and large-scale production of bakery goods. Stability of the product depends on the cleanliness and hygiene of the manufacturing process. Product may be packed in plastic bags, plastic containers or metal bins. If no additives are used, the fillings must be kept refrigerated. Due to its elevated nutrient and water content, shelf life is not very long.
Vinegar: Vinegar is prepared by an acetic fermentation of alcohol solutions derived from sugar or starchy materials (fermentable sugar content of 8-20%). This is done by strains isolated from the raw materials. Peel and other pineapple by-products from processing can be used as raw materials to prepare natural vinegar and thus make a proper use of residuals. Vinegar must be pasteurized once it is prepared and bottled. It is stable at ambient temperature.
Sauce: Concentrate 1 kg strained pulp containing 20 g sugar to 1/3 of its original volume in the presence of suspended spice bag containing 50 g chopped onion, 5 g garlic and 50 g ginger, 10 g powdered spices and 5 g red chillies. Press out spice bag occasionally and squeeze it out finally to obtain maximum spice extract. Add 15 g salt and remaining 40 g sugar and cook to thick consistency. Add 450 ml vinegar and cook again to end point. Add and mix preservative after dissolving in minimum quantity of water. Heat to boiling and hot pack.
Jam: Boil 1 kg pulp of ripe firm peeled fruit with 100 ml water 3 g citric acid and 10 g of pectin. Add 750 g sugar and cook to thick consistency. End point is confirmed by sheet test. Boiling mass is allowed to fall after cooking from a ladle which will flow in the form of a sheet. Pack hot in clean dry glass jars.
Jelly: Mix 1 kg grated pulp of fully mature peeled but somewhat raw fruits with ripe pineapple pulp (1 kg), 2.5 litre water 10 g citric acid and 2 g of pectin. Boil for 30 min, cool and allowed to settle for 2 hours. Separate the supernatant (upper layer) and filter. Test for pectin quality. Formation of single clot with small quantity of ethyl alcohol added to test samples indicates high pectin content. Concentrate further if necessary to obtain single clot. Cook gently the extract with equal quantity of sugar to obtain the end point indicated by the formation of sheet. Pack hot. Cover with a layer of melted wax and close the lid.
Preserve and candy: Cut rectangular slices (4×1 cm) or suitable sized cubes from the fully mature ripe washed peeled fruits after removing seeds. Keep in 1.5 % limewater for 3-4 hours. Drain and wash 3-4 times in plain water. Dissolve 400 g sugar in 600 ml hot water and filter. Boil pieces in sugar syrup and keep overnight. Next day drain the syrup, raise its Brix to 50. Add slices, boil and keep again. Repeat this process every day, untill Brix reaches 70-75°. Keep for a week. Drain the syrup, fill the pieces in dry jars and cover slices with freshly prepared sugar syrup of 70°Bx.
For the preparation of candy, raise the Brix of syrup to 75°, and keep it for a week. Drain and dry the pieces under shade. Dip pieces in boiling water to remove adhering sugars. Drain, dry and pack
Toffee: Concentrate 1 kg sieved pulp to 1/3 volume and cook with added sugar (600 g), glucose (100 g) and hydrogenated fat (100 g) till a speck of the product put into water forms compact solid mass. Make thick paste of 100 g skim milk powder in minimum quantity of water and mix with the boiling mass. Spread 1-2 cm thick layer of the cooked mass over /SS trays smeared with fat. Add flavoring material at this stage, if necessary. Allow to cool. Cut and wrap in butter paper.
|Dried pineapple||Carbonated Drink|
Packaging of products
Nutritional and medicinal values
Pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain, which digests food by breaking down protein. Bromelain is very effective in treating bruises, sprains and strains by reducing swelling, tenderness and pain. This powerful anti-inflammatory effect can also help relieve rheumatoid arthritis symptoms and reduce post-operative swelling. In addition, bromelain relieves indigestion, as the enzyme helps break down the amino acid bonds in proteins, which promotes good digestion. Unfortunately, most of the bromelain in canned pineapples is destroyed due to the heat used in the canning process. Pineapples also provide an ample supply of Vitamin C, an anti-oxidant that protects the body from free radical damage and boosts the immune system. Vitamin C helps build and repair bodily tissue and promotes wound healing. The body uses Vitamin C to metabolize fats and cholesterol, absorb iron, and synthesize amino acids and collagen. Vitamin C also decreases the severity of colds and infections. Other advantages are that the fruit is fat-free, has very low sodium and is also cholesterol-free. Meanwhile, pineapple juice can be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat. The enzymes in pineapples can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly or other gelatin-based desserts. These enzymes can be hazardous to someone suffering from certain protein deficiencies or disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Pineapples should also not be consumed by those with Hemophilia or by those with kidney or liver disease, as it may reduce the time taken to coagulate a consumer’s blood.
Sorting and Grading
Pineapples are selected or sorted manually according to the quality criteria agreed upon by the people involved in the trade. It is a common practice to grade pineapple based on variety, weight, shape, maturity and other factors. Prices are influenced mainly by variety and fruit size. The method is very subjective and can vary according to market or location. It is therefore important to incorporate proper grading and standardization in pineapple handling especially for export. Worldwide Codex Standard for Fresh Pineapple (Codex Stan. 182 – 1993) provides some standard guideline for pineapple.
Revised Codex Standard For Pineapples
Codex Stan 182-1993 (Rev. 1-1999)
- Definition of Produce
This standard applies to commercial varieties of pineapples grown from Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. of the Bromeliaceae family, to be supplied fresh to the consumer, after preparation and packaging. Pineapples for industrial processing are excluded.1
- Provisions Concerning Quality
2.1 Minimum Requirements:
In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, the pineapples must be:
- whole, with or without the crown;
- fresh in appearance, including the crown, when present, which should be free of dead or dried leaves;
- sound, produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded;
- clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter;
- free of internal browning;
- practically free of pests affecting the general appearance of the produce;
- practically free of damage caused by pests;
- free of pronounced blemishes;
- free of damage caused by low and/or high temperature;
- free of abnormal external moisture, excluding condensation following removal from cold storage;
- free of any foreign smell and/or taste.
When a peduncle is present, it shall be no longer than 2.0 cm, and the cut must be transversal, straight and clean. The fruit must be physiologically ripe, i.e., without evidence of unripening (opaque, flavourless, exceedingly porous2 flesh) or over ripeness (exceedingly translucent or fermented flesh).
2.1.1 The pineapples must have been carefully picked and have reached an appropriate degree of development and ripeness in accordance with criteria proper to the variety and/or commercial type and to the area in which they are grown.
The development and condition of the pineapples must be such as to enable them:
to withstand transport and handling, and
to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination.
2.2 Maturity Requirements
The total soluble solids content in the fruit flesh should be at least 12°Brix (twelve Brix degrees). For the determination of Brix degrees a representative sample of the juice of all the fruit shall be taken.
Pineapples are classified in three classes defined below:
Pineapples in this class must be of superior quality. They must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. They must be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
The crown, if present, shall be simple and straight with no sprouts, and shall be between 50 and 150 per cent of the length of the fruit for pineapples with untrimmed3 crowns.
Pineapples in this class must be of good quality. They must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type. The following slight defects, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package:
- slight defects in shape;
- slight defects in coloring, including sun spots;
- slight skin defects (i.e., scratches, scars, scrapes and blemishes) not exceeding 4 per cent of the total surface area. The defects must not, in any case, affect the pulp of the fruit. The crown, if present, shall be simple and straight or slightly curved with no sprouts, and shall be between 50 and 150 per cent of the length of the fruit for pineapples with trimmed or untrimmed3
This class includes pineapples which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements specified in Section 2.1 above. The following defects may be allowed, provided the pineapples retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation:
- defects in shape;
- defects in coloring, including sun spots;
- skin defects (i.e., scratches, scars, scrapes, bruises and blemishes), not exceeding 8 per cent of the total surface area.
The defects must not, in any case, affect the pulp of the fruit.
The crown, if present, shall be simple or double and straight or slightly curved, with no sprouts.
- Provisions Concerning Sizing
Size is determined by the average weight of the fruit with a minimum weight of 700 g, except for small size varieties4, which can have a minimum weight of 250 g, in accordance with the following table:
|Size Code||Average Weight (+/-12%) (in grams)
|Average Weight (+/-12%) (in grams)
Significant volumes of pineapples in international trade are packaged and sold by count per box.
Boxes are packed to minimum weight expectations e.g. 10 kg, 20 lbs, 40 lbs, appropriate for the various markets. Fruit are segregated for packaging by weights which approximate the above size codes, but may not consistently fall within a single size code, but would retain the uniformity required by the code.
- Provisions Concerning Tolerances
Tolerances in respect of quality and size shall be allowed in each inspection lot for produce not satisfying the requirements of the class indicated.
4.1 Quality Tolerances
Five per cent by number or weight of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class, but meeting those of Class I or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that class.
Ten per cent by number or weight of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class, but meeting those of Class II or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that class.
Ten per cent by number or weight of pineapples satisfying neither the requirements of the class nor the minimum requirements, with the exception of produce affected by rotting or any other deterioration rendering it unfit for consumption.
4.2 Size Tolerances
For all classes, 10 per cent by number or weight of pineapples corresponding to the size immediately above and/or below that indicated on the package.
- Provisions Concerning Presentation
The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only pineapples of the same origin, variety and/or commercial type, quality and size. For “Extra” Class, colour and ripeness should be uniform. The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of the entire contents.
Pineapples must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly. The materials used inside the package must be new,5clean, and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce. The use of materials, particularly of paper or stamps bearing trade specifications is allowed, provided the printing or labelling has been done with non-toxic ink or glue. Pineapples shall be packed in each container in compliance with the Recommended International Code of Practice for Packaging and Transport of Tropical Fresh Fruit and Vegetables (CAC/RCP 44-1995).
5.2.1 Description of Containers
The containers shall meet the quality, hygiene, ventilation and resistance characteristics to ensure suitable handling, shipping and preserving of the pineapples. Packages must be free of all foreign matter and smell.
- Marking Or Labelling
6.1 Consumer Packages
In addition to the requirements of the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985, Rev. 2-1999), the following specific provisions apply:
6.1.1 Nature of Produce
If the produce is not visible from the outside, each package shall be labelled as to the name of the produce and may be labelled as to the name of the variety and/or commercial type. The absence of the crown should be indicated.
6.2 Non-Retail Containers
Each package must bear the following particulars, in letters grouped on the same side, legibly and indelibly marked, and visible from the outside, or in the documents accompanying the shipment.6 Commission as to which provisions of this Section apply.
Name and address of Exporter, Packer and/or Dispatcher. Identification code (optional).7
6.2.2 Nature of Produce
Name of produce if the contents are not visible from the outside. Name of variety and/or commercial type (optional). The absence of the crown should be indicated.
6.2.3 Origin of Produce
Country of origin and, optionally, district where grown or national, regional or local place name.
6.2.4 Commercial Identification
Size (size code or average weight in grams);
Number of units (optional);
Net weight (optional).
7.1 Heavy Metals
Pineapples shall comply with those maximum levels for heavy metals established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity.
7.2 Pesticide Residues
Pineapples shall comply with those maximum residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity.
8.1 It is recommended that the produce covered by the provisions of this Standard be prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the Recommended International Code of Practice – General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3-1997), and other relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice.
8.2 The produce should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997). http://www.itfnet.org/v1/2016/05/pineapple-post-harvest-processing/
Below are global pineapples-related businesses that represent players in the worldwide pineapples market trade including canning operations and distributors as well as agricultural pineapple growers. Shown within parenthesis is the country where the company is headquartered.
Agricola Industrial La Lydia (Costa Rica)
Del Monte (United States)
Dole Food Company (United States)
Cocosong Food Industries (Malaysia)
Tipco Foods PCL (Thailand)
Fairteck Holding (Singapore)
Guangdong Harvest Canned Foods (China)
Billy Farming Industry (United States)
Ruby Pearl E-shop (Philippines)
Malool Tropical Foods Limited (India)
Pineapple Processing Plant and Machinery
We manufacture and install Pineapple Processing Plant & Machinery for pineapple juice & pineapple slice, titbits. We supplied pineapple processing equipment such as pineapple Washer, Conveyor, Crushing, Pasteurization, Evaporation, Filling & Packaging bottles.
Pineapple processing line starts from 250 Kg/hr to 5 ton/hour with different level of automation and different feeding systems of sliced pineapples. Can be used to make as pineapple juice and sliced pineapple in cans The packaging Product in cans, Bottles, Aseptic bag in drum
Capacity of the Plant: – 0.25/0.5/ 1/ 2/ 5 M Ton per Hour. Our lines are characterised from long-experience know-how, strong construction and energy saving.
Complete Sets of pineapple Processing Production Line:
Tubular Preheater Pasteurizer
Filling Line – Can Filling Machine /Bottle Filling Machine / Aseptic bag in drum filling Machine
Global Food Standard
The Pineapples manufactured by Pineapple India comply with the levels of International Food Standards acceptable globally.
Canned pineapple is the product (a) prepared from fresh, frozen, or previously canned, mature pineapple, conforming to the characteristics of Ananas comosus (L) Merr. (Ananas sativus (L) Lindl.) and from which peel and core have been removed, (b) packed with water or other suitable liquid medium; it may be packed with nutritive sweeteners as specified in sub-section 2, seasonings, or other ingredients appropriate to the product and (c) processed by heat in an appropriate manner before of after being sealed in a container so as to prevent spoilage.
For the purpose of’ canning, the types of pineapples used shall be of following varieties:
Grades: The material shall be of two grades, namely, Grade 1 and Grade 2.
Styles: Canned pineapple is packed in the following styles:
Slices or Spiral Slices or Whole Slice or Rings: Whole Slice are Uniformly cut circular slices or rings cut across the axis of the peeled, cored pineapple cylinders.
Broken Slices: Broken Slices are arc-shaped portions which may not be uniform in size and/or shape.
Tidbits: Tidbits are rasonably uniform, wedge-shaped sectors cut from slices or portions thereof, predominantly from 8 mm to 13 mm thick.
Chunks: Chunks are short, thick pieces cut from thick slices and/or from peeled cored pineapple and predominantly more than 12 mm in both thickness and width, and less than 38 mm in length.
Essential Composition And Quality Factors
Pineapple with or without liquid packing media or with dry nutritive sweeteners appropriate to the product and other optional ingredients as follows:
Packing medium used, consist of:
Juice: In Juice natural pineapple juice or clarified pineapple juice is the sole liquid packing medium;
Syrup: In Syrup water or juice is combined with one or more of the following nutritive sweeteners – sucrose, invert sugar, dextrose, dried glucose syrup, glucose syrup – and classified on the basis of cut-out strength as: Light Syrup, Medium Syrup and Heavy Syrup
The cut-out strength of syrup shall be determined on sample average, but no container may have a Brix value lower than that of the minimum of the next category below.
Definition of Defects
Blemish – Surface areas and spots which contrast strongly or colour or texture with the normal pineapple tissue or which may penetrate into the flesh. Such blemishes are normally removed in preparation of pineapple for culinary use and include deep fruit eyes, pieces of shell, brown spots, bruised portions and other abnormalities.
Broken – (Considered a defect only in Sliced and Spear styles). A unit severed into definite parts; all of such portions that equal the size of a full-size unit are considered one defect in applying the allowances herein.
Excessive Trim – (Considered a defect only in the styles of Whole, Slices including Spiral Slices, Half Slices, Quarter Slices and Spears). A unit trimmed to the extent that its normal shape and conformation is destroyed and detracts from the appearance of such unit. Trim will be considered “excessive” if the portion trimmed away exceeds five percent of the apparent physical bulk of the perfectly formed unit and if such trimming destroys the normal circular shape of the outer or inner edge of the unit.
Canned pineapple has a normal flavour and odour free from flavours or odours foreign to the product, and canned pineapple with special ingredients shall have a flavour characteristic of that imparted by the pineapple and the other substances used.
The colour of the product shall be normal for the varietal type. White radiating streaks may be present. Canned pineapple containing special ingredients shall be considered to be of characteristic colour when there is no abnormal discolouration for the respective ingredient used.
The canned pineapple shall have a reasonably good texture, the fruitlets shall be reasonably compact in structure, and the product shall be fairly free from porosity. The drained pineapple – of all styles may contain no more than 7% by weight of “core material”. In determining, the percentage of core material, the areas which consist of core material are trimmed from the pineapple unit and weighed against the drained fruit ingredient in the container.
Uniformity of Size and Shape
These requirements do not apply to canned pineapple in the styles of: Whole, Broken Slices,
Pieces, Chips or Crushed.
Slices or Spiral Slices or Whole Slices or Rings – The weight of the largest slice in a container
shall not be more than 1.4 times the weight of the smallest.
Tidbits – Not more than 15% of the drained weight of pineapple in the container may consist of tidbits, each of which shall weigh less than three-fourths of the average weight of the untrimmed tidbits.
Chunks – Not more than 15% of the drained weight of pineapple in the container may consist of pieces which weigh less than 5 grammes each.
Allowances for Defects
Canned pineapple shall not contain excessive defects (whether or not specifically defined or as allowed in this standard). Certain common defects shall not be present in amounts greater than the following limitations:
|Styles||Units with Excessive Trim||Blemishes or Blemished Units|
|Slices or Spiral Slices or Whole Slices;||1 unit if 10 or less per can||1 unit if 5 or less per can|
|Broken Slices; Tidbits||Not applicable||12.5% by count of all units|
It is recommended that the product covered by the provisions of this standard be prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the Recommended International Code of Practice – General Principles of Food Hygiene.
To the extent possible in Good Manufacturing Practice, the product shall be free from objectionable matter.
When tested by appropriate methods of sampling and examination, the product:
– shall be free from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health;
– shall be free from parasites which may represent a hazard to health; and
– shall not contain any substance originating from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health.
4.Weights And Measures
Fill of Container
The container shall be well filled with fruit and the product (including packing medium) shall occupy not less than 90% of the water capacity of the container. The water capacity of the container is the volume of distilled water at 20?C which the sealed container will hold when completely filled.
Minimum Drained Weight
The drained weight of the product shall be not less than the following percentages, calculated on the basis of the weight of distilled water at 20?C which the sealed container will hold when completely filled:
|(a)||Whole Slices or Ring Styles||-55 %|
|(b)||Tidbits styles||-55 %|
|(c)||Chunks Style||– 55 %|
The requirements for minimum drained weight shall be deemed to be complied with when the average drained weight of all containers examined is not less than the minimum required, provided that there is no unreasonable shortage in individual containers. http://www.pineappleindia.com/Food-Standards.html
Growing Pineapple in a Greenhouse
Everyone loves a good experiment in the greenhouse. Trying to grow something new is an exciting adventure. Have you ever attempted to grow a pineapple in the greenhouse and that they do not grow on trees, but can be grown in a container. This is a little known fact and people visiting your greenhouse will be amazed to see a pineapple growing.
How to Start
Begin at the grocery store by looking for a pineapple with a really green top. The greener the top, the better chance you will have of the top taking root. When you get the fruit home, chop off the top like you would normally do. Then remove the flesh from the bottom of the stem. Cut off all the fruit possible which keeps the plant from rotting and attracting bugs.
Next you have two options: either place the pineapple top in soil, or in water. One is not better than the other. I have around a 50% success rate for getting the stem to “take” with both methods. Each can work or or fail. After several attempts I tend to stick with soil because the water needs to be changed frequently. It can also become a bit smelly if all the fruit was not removed. I typically start with a 4-6” container, filled with potting soil. All you do is stick the stem in the soil, just deep enough for it to stay balanced.
Now you wait for the plant to take root. Within the week you will see if the plant is going to die because it shrivels up and turns brown. If it doesn’t do this, chances are good it will take. If you opted for the water method, wait until you see roots growing out the bottom of the stem and then place it in a container with soil. After the pineapple has been planted, keep the soil moist and the temperatures warm. When the plant takes root, it will start to grow new leaves.
This requires patience. Continue to water it and watch it grow. You can fertilize it if you want, but our pineapples were definitely underfed and they still did fine. The greenhouse temperatures are around 70 degrees in winter and 80 over summer. I have heard you can even grow a pineapple on a windowsill in your house if you have the space. Or it can be grown directly in the soil if you have raised beds and the space. When the pineapple is fully grown it will measure around three feet wide in a container and closer to four feet wide in the ground. It takes a minimum of eighteen months for fruit to be created.
You will notice an odd formation growing deep in the leaves of the pineapple plant. It will be round and textured and is the start of the pineapple. This flower will rise out of the plant and develop a stem, then proceed to fatten. You will notice little pink or red tendrils on the plant which open to create the ridges of the pineapple. As the pineapple grows, continue watering it. It will take around six months from the time the pineapple flowers to the time it ripens.
The pineapple will cease growing and then start to ripen. As the fruit ripens, you will find a second plant growing in the same container. The first plant will stop growing after the fruit is harvested and the next pineapple will take over to produce another fruit. It takes about three months for the pineapple to ripen after it has reached full size. You will notice that the pineapple turns a golden yellow color and then it is time to harvest. Cut the fruit off the stem and eat it. The fruit is much sweeter than ones found in the greenhouse because it is allowed to fully ripen. Then take the remaining to, plant it, and continue the cycle. http://www.gardenandgreenhouse.net/articles/september-2012/growing-pineapple-in-a-greenhouse/